The Policy of extending a nation's power through colonization and empire building/ Having economic and political authority over weaker nations
Motives of Imperialism
1.POLITICAL- quest for glory, nationalist rivalries
2.ECONOMIC- needed new external markets for manufactured goods
3.EXPLORATORY- desire to explore unknown territory
4.IDEOLOGICAL- Europeans believed their race * culture is superior to others, and sought to "civilize" other cultures
5.RELIGIOUS- spreading of religion
Applying "survival of the fittest" to the human race.
Theory that portrayed individuals and nations part of the same struggle for survival as a species
Strongly believed that British Civilization should be the model for everyone. Ideological. Wrote "White Man's Burden"
Egypt and Suez Canal
In 1860's, Egyptians allowed a French company to build Suez Canal (connecting Medd. sea to Red sea). Brought Egypt to near bankruptcy and vulnerable to European intervention
When great European powers met to establish ground rules for partitioning the world among themselves
"Scramble for Africa"
1885-1914: European powers established their rule over the vast majority of Africa. Great Britain was the leading military and industrial nation. France sought land to compensate for their loss to Germans in the Franco-Prussia war. Only Liberia and Ethiopia remained independent.
The "carving" up of Africa by Europeans in preparation for colonialism
Leopold II and the Congo Free State
Leopold II established the Congo Free State. In early 1900's, stories of his brutality was spreading and eventually the Belgian government took control of the colony
Scramble for Africa drew Europeans into local wars and conflicts with each other. For months, Britain and France stood on the brink of war in what became known as the Fashoda Crisis (Possible war was due to the fact who would control Fashoda.
Established a British-controlled railway from the Cape to Cairo that would open up the African continent to British Imperial Control. Became Prime Minister of Cape Colony. Attempted to annex Boer Republics of Transvaal and Orange Free State to ensure that South Africa remained with the British Empire
British started another war with the Boers as an attempt to finally annex them to the British Empire. Boers resisted strongly for 2 years through a highly effective form of guerrilla warfare, but still lost to Britain in 1902.
When the truth about European intentions became known, Africans resisted fiercely. Ethiopia was able to defend itself from Italy by using modern weapons obtained from Russia and France.
Emperor Menelik II and Ethiopia
Emperor of Ethiopia. When he discovered that the wording/translation of the treaty in Italian was different from his copy in Amharic, he fought back against Italy and successfully defended Ethiopia. This was possible because he had modern weapons that he obtained from Russia and France.
British East India Company
British first entered India as traders in the early 1600's. In 1764, British victories brought the eastern province of Bengal under the rule of the British East India company. Dominated trade by forming alliances with Indian rulers and creating an army of Indian soldiers known as "sepoys"
Sepoys and Indian Mutiny
"Sepoys"- British-created army that consisted of only Indian Soldiers
"Indian Mutiny"- Sepoy Indians that rejected British authority revolted in 1857