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50 terms

8th - Science Chapter 10

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Geologic Time Scale
the division of the Earth's history into time units based on the life-forms that lived only during certain periods
eons
the longest subdivisions of geologic time is based upon the abundance of certain fossils
eras
after eons, it is the longest subdivision of time and is marked by major, striking, and worldwide changes in types of fossils; these units of time are divided into periods
periods
are units of geologic time characterized by the types of life existing worldwide at that time; two of these units of time are divided into epochs
epoch
this is the shortest unit of geologic time; they are characterized by differences in life-forms, but some of the differences can vary from continent to continent.
organic evolution
fossil record shows that species have changed over geologic time
species
a group of organisms that normally reproduces only with other members of their group
natural selection
a process by which organisms with characteristics that are suited to a certain environment have a better chance of surviving and reproducing than organisms that do not have these characteristics
artificial selection
breeding of animals to obtain specific characteristics; Example: breeding domestic animals
trilobites
exoskeleton consists of three lobes that run thelength of the body; it has a heaad, a segmented middle section and a tail
index fossils
fossils of creatures that indicates that they lived everywhere on the Earth for a short period of time: trilobites
Pangea
a giant landmass or supercontinent
Precambrian Time
the longest part of Earth's history and includes the Hadean, Archean and Proterozoic Eons; lated about 4.5 billion to 544 million years ago; rocks from this time have been so deeply buried that they have been changed by heat or pressure
Cyanobacteria
blue-green algae thought to be one of the earliest forms of life on Earth; first appeared about 3.5 billion yers ago; contained chlorophyll and used photosynthesis; then oxygen became a major atmospheric gas during Pre-Cambrian Time
unusual life-forms during Pre-Cambrian Times
similar to modern jellyfish, worms, and soft corals; many were bottom dwellers
Paleozoic Era
era of ancient life; 544 million -248 million years ago; traces of life easier to find in this era; warm shallow seas covered land and most life forms were marine; invertebrates and first vertebrates with backbones evolved during this era; many ancient fish had lungs and gills
Appalachian Mountains
formed during the Paleozoic era; it occurred as the ocean separating North America from Europe and Africa closed
End of Paleozoic Era
more than 90% of all marine species and 70 % of all land species died off; continental plates came together and formed the supercontinent Pangaea; glaciers formed over most of its southern part; mountain building processes caused seas to close and deserts to spread over North America and Europe
possible cause of extinction of the dinosaurs
a large asteroid or comet collided with Earth around 248 million years ago causing wide-spread smoke blocking the sun and killing plant life; OR extreme volcanic activity great enough to block the sun and affect the entire globe
Mesozoic era
248-65 million years ago; marked by rapid movement of Earth's plates; Era of middle life; at the beginning of this era, all continents were a single landmass or Pangaea; Panagea separated into Laurasis (north mas) and Gondwanaland (south mass) then broke up into present-day continents; reptiles adapted readily to drier climates & became the most conspicuous animal during the Triassic Period
Dinosaurs
during the Mesozoic Era of the Triassic Period the first small dinosaurs appeared; large dinosaurs appeared during hte Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods; new species of dinosaurs evolved and othe species became extinct; they may have been warm or cold blooded
What is know about the dinosaurs?
Many nests have been found together and it is believed that the mothers nurtured their dinosaurs babies or young.
Birds in the Mesozoic Era
they appeared during the Jurassic Period; believed to have evolved from small, meat-eating dinosaurs; not believed to be direct ancestors of today's birds
Mammals of the Mesozoic Era
first appeared in the Triassic Period; they were small, mouse-like creatures; they were warm-blooded vertebrates that have hair covering their bodies & females produced milk to feed their young
Gymnosperms in the Mesozoic Era
first appeared in the Paleozoic Era & dominated the land; they are platns that produce seeds but not flowers; pines and ginkgo trees
angiosperms during the Meszoic Era
flowering plants first evolved during the Cretaceous Period; these plants produce seeds with hard out;er covering; they are the most diverse and abundant land plants today; magnolia and oak trees
End of the Mesozoic Era
ended around 65 million years ago; major extinction of land and marine species; dinosaurs disappeared; maybe an asteroid collided with Earth; great extinction
Cenozoic Era
era of recent life; began about 65 million years ago and continues today; it is divided into 2 periods: Tertiary and Quaternary and the 2 periods are divided into 7 epochs (PEOMPPH)
What is the Cenozoic Era known for?
mountain building period with cooler climates
Cenozoic mammals
they became dominant with many new life-forms appearing after the dinosaurs disappeared; expanding grasslands favors grass eaters like horses, cattle, camels, deer, elephants, etc.
Cenozoic Marsupials
mammals like kangaroos, loalas and wombats that carry their young in a pouch
When did Homo Sapiens probably appear on Earth?
around 140,000 years ago; fossils suggest that humans were hunters
Palezoic = Early Life = ______ & ______
Trilobites in oceans & first land plants
Mesozoic = Middle Life = _____ & ______
dinosaurs roam Earth & abundant gymnosperms
Cenozoic = recent life = ______ & ______
mammals common & abundant angiosperms
A change in the hereditary feature of a species over a long period is _________.
organic evolution
A record of events in Earth history is the ____________.
geologic time scale
The largest subdivision of geologic time is the ___________.
eon
The process by which the best-suited individuals survive in their environment is ___________________.
natural selection
A group of individuals that normally breed only among themselves is a _______.
species
How many millions of years ago did the era in which you live begin?
65 million years
What is the process by which better suited organisms survive and reproduce?
natural selection
During what period did the most recent ice age occur?
Quaternary
what is the next smaller division of geologic time after the era?
period
What was one of the earliest forms of life?
cyanobacterium
During which era did the dinosaurs live?
Mesozoic
Which type of plant has seeds without protective coverings?
gymnosperms
Which group of plants evolved during hte Mesozoic Era and is dominant today?
angiosperms
In which era did the Ediacaran fauna live?
Precambrian
A student thought she found a dinosaur bone in Pleistocene sediment. Is this possible?
It is not likely because dinosaurs became extinct long before the Pleistocene Epoch.