APUSH KTPTK Ch 18, 19, 20, 21, & 22
Terms in this set (96)
Compromise of 1850
Admitted California as a free state, opened New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty, ended the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in Washington, D. C., and introduced a more stringent fugitive slave law. Widely opposed in both the North and the South, it did little to settle the escalating dispute over slavery.
Free Soil Party
Antislavery party in the 1848 and 1852 elections that opposed the extension of slavery into the territories, arguing that the presence of slavery would limit opportunities for free laborers.
Fugitive Slave Law (1850)
Passed as a part of the Compromise of 1850, it set hight penalties for anyone who aided escaped slaves and compelled all law enforcement officers to participate in retrieving runaways. Strengthened the antislavery cause in the North.
Treaty of Kanagawa (1854)
Ended Japan's two-hundred year period of economic isolation, establishing an American consulate in Japan and securing American coaling rights in Japanese ports.
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Proposed that the issue of slavery be decided by popular sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraska territories, thus revoking the 1820 Missouri Compromise. Introduced by Stephen Douglass in an effort to bring Nebraska into the Union and pave the way for a northern transcontinental railroad.
War between Britain and China over trading rights, particularly Britain's desire to continue selling ______ to Chinese traders. The resulting trade agreement prompted Americans to seek similar concessions from the Chinese.
Notion that the sovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery. Seemingly a compromise, it was largely opposed by Northern abolitionists who feared its would promote the spread of slavery to the territories.
Treaty of Wanghia
Signed by the U. S. and China, it assured the United States the same trading concessions granted to other powers, greatly expanding America's trade with the Chinese.
Civil war in Kansas over the issue of slavery in the territory, fought intermittently until 1861, when it merged with the wider national Civil War.
Constitutional Union Party
Formed by moderate Whigs and Know-Nothings in an effort to elect a compromise candidate and avert a sectional crisis.
Proposed in an attempt to appease the South, the failed Constitutional amendments would have given federal protection for slavery in all territories south of 36°30' where slavery was supported by popular sovereignty.
Dred Scott v. Stanford
Supreme Court decision that extended federal protection to slavery by ruling that Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory. Also declared that slaves, as property, were not citizens of the United States.
Declared that since slavery could not exist without laws to protect it, territorial legislatures, not the Supreme Court, would have the final say on the slavery question. First argued by Stephen Douglass in 1858 in response to Abraham Lincoln's "Freeport Question."
Federal arsenal in Virginia seized by abolitionist John Brown in 1859. Though Brown was later captured and executed, his raid alarmed Southerners who believed that Northerners shared in Brown's extremism.
Proposed Kansas constitution, whose ratification was unfairly rigged so as to guarantee slavery in the territory. Initially ratified by proslavery forces, it was later voted down when Congress required that the entire constitution be put up for a vote.
Series of debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglass during the U. S. Senate race in Illinois. Douglass won the election but Lincoln gained national prominence and emerged as the leading candidate for the 1860 Republican nomination.
New England Immigrant Aid Company
Organization created to facilitate the migration of free laborers to Kansas in order to prevent the establishment of slavery in the territory.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe's widely read novel that dramatized the horrors of slavery. It heightened Northern support for abolition and escalated the sectional conflict.
British-built and manned Confederate warship that raided Union shipping during the Civil War. One of many built by the British for the Confederacy, despite Union protests.
Five slave states--Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia--that did not secede during the Civil War. To keep the states in the Union, Abraham Lincoln insisted that the war was not about abolishing slavery but rather protecting the Union.
South Carolina location where Confederate forces fired the first shots of the Civil War in April of 1861, after Union forces attempted to provision the fort.
Paper currency issued by the Union Treasury during the Civil War. Inadequately supported by gold, ______ fluctuated in value throughout the war, reaching a low of 39 cents on the dollar.
Homestead Act (1862)
A federal law that gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for five years and improved it by, for instance, building a house on it. The act helped make land accessible to hundreds of thousands of westward-moving settlers, but many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing up the best land.
Laird Rams (1863)
Two well-armed ironclad warships constructed for the Confederacy by a British firm. Seeking to avoid war with the United States, the British government purchased the two ships for its Royal Navy instead.
Morrill Tariff Act (1861)
Increased duties back up to 1846 levels to raise revenue for the Civil War.
National Banking System
Network of member banks that could issue currency against purchased government bonds. Created during the Civil War to establish a stable national currency and stimulate the sale of war bonds.
New York Draft Riots (1863)
Uprising, mostly of working-class Irish-Americans, in protest of the draft. Rioters were particularly incensed by the ability of the rich to hire substitutes or purchase exemptions.
Trent Affair (1861)
Diplomatic row that threaten to bring the British into the Civil War on the side of the Confederacy, after a Union warship stopped a British steamer and arrested two Confederate diplomats on board.
US Sanitary Commission (1861)
Founded with the help of Elizabeth Blackwell, the government agency trained nurses, collected medical supplies, and equipped hospitals in an effort to help the Union Army. The commission helped professionalize nursing and gave many women the confidence and organizational skills to propel the women's movement in the postwar years.
West Virginia (admitted to the Union 1863)
Mountainous region that broke away from Virginia in 1861 to form its own state after Virginia seceded from the Union. Most of the residents of ___________ were independent farmers and miners who did not own slaves and thus opposed the Confederate cause.
Writ of Habeas Corpus
Petition requiring law enforcement officers to present detained individuals before the court to examine the legality of the arrest. Protects individuals from arbitrary state action. Suspended by Lincoln during the Civil War.
Battle of Antietam (Sept 1862)
Landmark battle in the Civil War that essentially ended in a draw but demonstrated the prowess of the Union army, forestalling foreign intervention and giving Lincoln the "victory" he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
Appomattox Courthouse (April 1865)
Site where Robert E. Lee Surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in April 1865 after almost a year of brutal fighting throughout Virginia in the "Wilderness Campaign."
First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861)
First major battle of the Civil War and a victory for the South, it dispelled Northern illusions of a swift victory.
Congressional Committee on the Conduct of War (1861-1865)
Established by Congress during the Civil War to oversee military affairs. Largely under the control of Radical Republicans, the committee agitated for a more vigorous war effort and actively pressed Lincoln on the issue of emancipation.
Northern Democrats who obstructed the war effort by attacking Abraham Lincoln, the draft and, after 1863, emancipation.
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
Declared all slaves in rebelling states to be free but did not affect slavery in non-rebelling Border States. It closed the door on possible compromise with the South and encouraged thousands of Southern slaves to flee to Union lines.
Battle of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson (Feb 1862)
Key victory for Union General Ulysses S. Grant, it secured the North's hold on Kentucky and paved the way for Grant's attacks deeper into Tennessee.
Battle of Fredericksburg (Dec 1862)
Decisive victory in Virginia for Confederate Robert E. Lee, who successfully repelled a Union attack on his lines.
Gettysburg Address (1863)
Abraham Lincoln's oft-quoted speech, delivered at the dedication of the cemetery at Gettysburg battlefield. In the ______, Lincoln framed the war as a means to uphold the values of liberty.
Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863)
Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett's daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines.
Merrimack and Monitor (1862)
Confederate and Union ironclads, respectively, whose successes against wooden ships signaled an end to wooden warships. They fought a historic, though inconsequential battle in 1862.
Peninsula Campaign (1862)
Union General George B. McClellan's failed effort to seize Richmond, the Confederate Capital. Had McClellan taken Richmond and toppled the Confederacy, slavery would have most likely survived in the South for some time.
Second Battle of Bull Run (Aug 1862)
Civil War battle that ended in a decisive victory for Confederate General Robert E. Lee, who was emboldened to push further into the North.
Sherman's March to the Sea (1864-1865)
Union General William Tecumseh Sherman's destructive march through Georgia. An early instance of "total war," purposely targeting infrastructure and civilian property to diminish morale and undercut the Confederate war effort.
Battle of Shiloh (April 1862)
Bloody Civil War battle on the Tennessee-Mississippi border that resulted in the deaths of more than 23,000 soldiers and ended in a marginal Union victory.
Thirteenth Amendment (1865)
Constitutional amendment prohibiting all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude. Former Confederate States were required to ratify the amendment prior to gaining reentry into the Union.
Union Party (1864)
A coalition party of pro-war Democrats and Republicans formed during the 1864 election to defeat anti-war Northern Democrats.
Battle/Siege of Vicksburg (1863)
Two-and-a-half month siege of a Confederate fort on the Mississippi River in Tennessee. _______ finally fell to Ulysses S. Grant in July of 1863, giving the Union Army control of the Mississippi River and splitting the South in two.
The Wilderness Campaign (1864-1865)
A series of brutal clashes between Ulysses S. Grant's and Robert E. Lee's armies in Virginia, leading up to Grant's capture of Richmond in April of 1865. Having lost richmond, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse.
Created to aid newly emancipated slaves by providing food, clothing, medical care, education, and legal support. Its achievements were uneven and depended largely on the quality of local administrators.
10 Percent Reconstruction Plan
Introduced by President Lincoln, it proposed that a state be readmitted to the Union once 10 percent of its voters pledged loyalty to the United States and promised to honor emancipation.
Passed by Congressional Republicans in response to Abraham Lincoln's "10 percent plan," it required that 50 percent of a state's voters pledge allegiance to the Union, and set stronger safeguards for emancipation. Reflected divisions between Congress and the President, and between radical and moderate Republicans, over the treatment of the defeated South.
Laws passed throughout the South to restrict the rights of emancipated blacks, particularly with respect to negotiating labor contracts. Increased Northerner's criticisms of President Andrew Johnson's lenient Reconstruction policies.
Pacific Railroad Act
Helped fund the construction of the Union Pacific transcontinental railroad with the use of land grants and government bonds.
Civil Rights Bill
Passed over Andrew Johnson's veto, the bill aimed to counteract the Black Codes by conferring citizenship on African Americans and making it a crime to deprive blacks of their rights to sue, testify in court, or hold property.
Fourteenth Amendment (ratified 1868)
Constitutional amendment that extended civil rights to freedmen and prohibited states from taking away such rights without due process.
Passed by the newly elected Republican Congress, it divided the South into five military districts, disenfranchised former confederates, and required that Southern states both ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and write state constitutions guaranteeing freedmen the franchise before gaining readmission to the Union.
Southern Democratic politicians who sought to wrest control from Republican regimes in the South after Reconstructions.
Derogatory term for pro-Union Southerners whom Southern Democrats accused of plundering the resources of the South in collusion with Republican governments after the Civil War.
Ku Klux Klan
An extremist, paramilitary, right-wing secret society founded in the mid-nineteenth century and revived during the 1920s. It was anti-foreign, anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-pacifist, anti-communist, anti-internationalist, anti-evolutionist, and anti-bootlegger, but pro-Anglo-Saxon and pro-Protestant. Its members, cloaked in sheets to conceal their identities, terrorized freedmen and sympathetic whites throughout the South after the Civil War. By the 1890s, _____-style violence and Democratic legislation succeeded in virtually disenfranchising all Southern blacks.
Tenure of Office Act
Required the President to seek approval from the Senate before removing appointees. When Andrew Johnson removed his secretary of war in violation of the act, he was impeached by the house but remained in office when the Senate fell one vote short of removing him.
Passed by Congress following a wave of Ku Klux Klan violence, the acts banned clan membership, prohibited the use of intimidation to prevent blacks from voting, and gave the U. S. military the authority to enforce the acts.
Popular term for Secretary of State William Seward's purchase of Alaska from Russia. The derisive term reflected the anti-expansionist sentiments of most Americans immediately after the Civil War.
Pejorative used by Southern whites to describe Northern businessmen and politicians who came to the South after the Civil War to work on Reconstruction projects or invest in Southern infrastructure.
Fifteenth Amendment (ratified 1870)
Prohibited states from denying citizens the franchise on account of race. It disappointed feminists who wanted the Amendment to include guarantees for women's suffrage.
Massachusetts lawyer-scholar whom President Tyler dispatched to ensure America could compete for Chinese trading opportunities with Britain. His four warships arrived in China in 1844 bearing gifts that contributed to the Treaty of Wanghia, the first formal US-China diplomatic agreement. He secured vital rights and privileges from the Chinese, including "Most favored nation status." His treaty caused American trade with China to flourish and opened the door for American missionaries to enter China.
A veteran general from the War of 1812 and a proslavery Democratic presidential candidate in 1848. Although the Democratic platform was typically silent on the issue of slavery in the territories, he spoke out and became the reputed father of popular sovereignty. Was a senator and had diplomatic experience, but considered pompous and nicknamed "General Gass."
New York lawyer-politician and Vice President to Zachary Taylor. Became President when Taylor died suddenly and signed the highly debated Compromise of 1850 into law. Was the presidential candidate for the anti-immigration Know-Nothing Party in 1856.
Unrenowned lawyer-politician who became the Democratic presidential candidate and eventual election victor in 1852. He was a weak, indecisive prosouthern northerner and was thus acceptable to the proslavery wing of the Democratic party. His platform revived the Democrats' commitment to territorial expansion and endorsed the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law. However, his party shied away from him in the 1856 election due to his ties to the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Henry Ward Beecher
Preacher-abolitionist son of Lyman Beecher and and sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe. Because he helped raise money for their purchase, breech-loading Sharp rifles used by antislavery organizations in Kansas were nicknamed "Beecher's Bibles."
John C. Breckinridge
James Buchanan's Vice President and a man of moderate views from border state Kentucky. Selected as leader of the Southern Democrats at a Baltimore nomination convention whose platform favored the extension of slavery into the territories and the annexation of slave-populated Cuba. Received the votes of all the cotton states in the Election of 1860.
Hot-tempered South Carolina Congressman who beat Senator Charles Sumner with a cane over congressional controversy. He resigned from the House but was triumphantly reelected.
Violent militant abolitionist who moved to Kansas from Ohio and killed 5 men presumed to be proslavery in an act of terrorism. After studying the rebellion tactics of Toussaint L'Ouverture and Nat Turner, he attempted to invade the South secretly, arm the slaves, and establish a black free sanctuary state. His attempt was unsuccessful, and he was captured and convicted of murder and treason. The South concluded that the entire North shared his violent abolitionist view although many northerners disapproved of his actions.
Well-to-do Pennsylvania lawyer who won the Election of 1856 as the Democratic party candidate. He was strongly under Southern influence, and he hopelessly divided the Democratic party through antagonizing northern Douglas Democrats. He has been blamed for not holding the seceders in the Union by sheer force, but the weakness lay more in the Constitution and in the Union itself.
John Jordan Crittenden
Kentucky Senator who proposed the Crittenden amendments to the Constitution, meant to appease the South.
Energetic woman who helped transform nursing from a lowly service into a respected profession, opening a major sphere of employment for women in the postwar era. Known as the "angel" of Civil War battlefields. She founded the Red Cross.
A planter aristocrat and West Point graduate who was Secretary of War under President Pierce and a senator from Mississippi before becoming the Confederate president in 1862. He had wide military and administrative experience, but suffered from chronic ill health. He envisioned a well-knit central government for the Confederacy, but was fought by states' rights supporters who argued their right to secede from the present secession movement. He never enjoyed real personal popularity and faced serious talk of impeachment. The closest he was to victory was at Antietam. He was rumored in the north to have plotted Lincoln's assassination. After the war, he was briefly imprisoned but later released and pardoned. Congress only restored his citizenship posthumously.
Renowned southern woman who ran a Richmond infirmary for wounded Confederate soldiers. Awarded the rank of captain by Confederate president Jefferson Davis.
John Wilkes Booth
Half-crazed, fanatically pro-Southern actor who shot Lincoln in the head in Ford's Theater in Washington.
Ambrose E. Burnside
General who replaced McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac after Antietam. Proved his unfitness for this responsibility when he launched a rash frontal attack on Lee's strong position at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in late 1862. Eventually yielded his command to Joseph Hooker. Had ornate side-whiskers that came to be known as "sideburns."
Ulysses S. Grant
General who was one of the most effective Northern leaders in the Civil War, determined to achieve victory no matter what cost. After fighting creditably in the Mexican War, he failed at various business measures until his boldness, resourcefulness, and tenacity made him a significant military figure. Contributed to the Northern military plan, especially the sixth component of trying everywhere to engage the enemy's main strength and grind it into submission. His first signal success came when he captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, and he later won at Shiloh. The siege of Vicksburg was his best-fought campaign of the war. He met with Lee at the Appomattox Courthouse and granted generous terms of surrender. In the Election of 1868, the Republican party nominated him for the presidency, which he won. A great soldier but an inept politician, he was first tarred by the Crédit Mobilier scandal and later faced the economic panic of 1873. He served a second term.
Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker
Aggressive officer who became commander of the Army of the Potomac after Ambrose E. Burnside. He was badly beaten at Chancellorsville, Virginia, by Lee. Replaced by General George G. Meade.
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Lee's chief lieutenant for most of the war, he was a tactical theorist and a master of speed and deception. Won his nickname because his soldiers stood like a stone wall at the First Battle of Bull Run. Lee sent him to attack the Union flank at Chancellorsville, Virginia, resulting in a Confederate victory. He was mistakenly shot and killed by his own men.
Robert E. Lee
Leading Confederate general who embodied the Southern ideal. Lincoln unofficially offered him command of the Northern armies but he felt honor-bound to go with his native state when Virginia seceded. He fought in the Mexican War and gained field experience; he also captured John Brown at the raid at Harpers Ferry. He successfully countered the Union in the Peninsula Campaign and won the Second Battle of Bull Run, but lost at Antietam (although narrowly). One of his most brilliant victories was at Chancellorsville, Virginia. His rate of loss at one casualty for every five soldiers was the highest of any general in the war. Eventually outlasted by Grant and surrendered to him at Appomattox Courthouse.
George B. McClellan
Union general that was given command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861. Called "Young Napoleon," he was a superb organizer and drillmaster, but he was overcautious and slow, consistently but erroneously believing that the enemy outnumbered him. He was defeated by Lee in the Peninsula Campaign; if he had succeeded in taking Richmond, the war may have ended there (albeit with the continuation of slavery). He was temporarily removed from his post, reinstated, and victorious at Antietam. However, his performance underwhelmed and he was removed from his field command for a second and final time. He was eventually nominated by the Democrats in the Election of 1864 and won 45% of the popular vote, but Lincoln won reelection.
Replaced Joseph Hooker as commander of the Army of the Potomac three days before Gettysburg. He was blamed for failing to pursue the defeated but always dangerous Lee and was replaced by Grant.
Confederate general known for his charge at Gettysburg. Although his magnificent yet futile charge failed, it was the northernmost point reached by any significant Southern force and the last real change for the Confederates to win the war.
Union general who suffered a crushing defeat by Lee at the Second Battle of Bull Run.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Union General who was tasked with conquesting Georgia after Grant cleared the way through Chattanooga. He captured and burned Atlanta and a significant portion of Georgia in Sherman's march, aiming to destroy Confederate supplies and weaken Confederate morale. He believed in "total war;" although he used brutal methods, he probably shortened the struggle and hence saved lives. He followed a similar path of destruction through South Carolina.
A loyal War Democrat from Tennessee meant to attract more voters to the Union party ticket as Lincoln's running mate in the election of 1864. He became president in 1865 after Lincoln's assassination, but lacked many of Lincoln's priceless qualities and was later impeached (but not removed) by his own party. He pardoned all rebel leaders after the war and supported states' rights and the Constitution. He faced immense controversy with Congress, and the lack of dignity of his office resulted in Republicans gaining veto-proof majorities in both houses in the midterm election of 1866.
A congressman from Pennsylvania who was a leading figure on the Joint (House-Senate) Committee on Reconstruction. His devotion to blacks was matched by a hatred for rebellious white Southerners. He advocated for a radical program of drastic economic reforms and heftier protections for political rights. He had difficulty building a compelling case for Andrew Johnson's impeachment, and was infuriated by the radicals' failure to acquire the two-thirds majority necessary for Johnson's removal.
Union general who headed Freedman's Bureau and later founded and served as president of Howard University in Washington, D. C. He was a warmly sympathetic friend of blacks.
Edwin M. Stanton
Secretary of War who was outwardly loyal to Johnson but secretly served as a spy and informer for the radicals. The Tenure of Office Act was partially meant to secure his cabinet position; however, Johnson dismissed him early in 1868 and was later charged with various violations of the Act that led to his impeachment.
The president pro tempore of the Senate who would have succeeded Johnson because of the vacant vice presidency. He was disliked by many members of the business community for his high-tariff, soft-money, pro-labor views and was distrusted by moderate Republicans.
A antislavery senator from New York who was a spokesman for many younger northern radicals. He argued that Christian legislators must obey God's moral law, therefore appealing to an even "higher law" than the Constitution. He was a leader of the Republican party, but this alarming phrase may have cost him the presidential nomination and the presidency in 1860. He later served as Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson. An ardent expansionist, he signed a treaty with Russia that transferred Alaska to the United States for the bargain price of $7.2 million.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
KTPTK -APUSH unit 5
KTPTK Unit 5
Unit 5 KTPTK
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Unit 2 Biochem (updated)
Chapter 5: Integumentary system
Chapter 4: Tissues
Chapter 3: Cell Structures