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a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles
Glassy hyaline cartilage
Covers the external surface of the ends of the long bones. It provides a smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at joint surfaces
cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
Function of bones
Support, protection, movement, storage of energy and minerals and blood cell formation
In periosteum, capable of differentiating into bone cells and dividing. Responds to traumas
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix, releasing calcium ions into the blood
The cartilage model will grow in length by continuous cell division of chondrocytes, which is accompanied by further secretion of extracellular matrix.
An ossification center appears in the fibrous connective tissue membrane. Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane. Woven bone and periosteum form. Bone collar of compact bone forms, and red marrow appears
Layer of Bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone
Minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, Vitamins A,C and D. Hormones and weight bearing excersises
The extracellular material of bone tissue, including ground substance and collagen fibers. Excludes the inorganic calcium salts.
Central canals surrounded by osteons; contain the blood vessels and nerves that serve the bone. They bring nurishment to the bone
the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs
thin, flattened, and usually curved, two thin layers of compact sandwiching spongey bone (skull, ribs, sternum)
bones that have complex shapes with short, flat, notched or ridged surfaces; examples are vertebrae that form the spinal column and several bones in the skull
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
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