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63 terms

Anatomy, Chap. #5: The Skeletal System

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Diaphysis
The shaft of a long bone
The diaphysis is composed of ___________?
Compact bone
Periosteum
a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles
Sharpey's fibers
Secure the periosteum to the underlying bones
Epiphyses
The ends of the long bones. It encloses and area filled with spongy bone
Glassy hyaline cartilage
Covers the external surface of the ends of the long bones. It provides a smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at joint surfaces
Epiphyseal line
in adults; remnant of epiphyseal plate
Epiphyseal plate
cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton
Medullary cavity
The empty space inside the diaphysis it is filled with yellow bone marrow
Yellow marrow
Storage area for adipose (fat) tissue, i.e. energy`
Red marrow
Found in the epiphyses of long bones and forms blood cells
hematopiesis
Formation and development of blood cells
Endosteum
Membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
Proximal epiphysis
End of a bone closest to the main body
Distal epiphysis
end of a bone furthest from the body
Function of bones
Support, protection, movement, storage of energy and minerals and blood cell formation
Osteogenic cells
In periosteum, capable of differentiating into bone cells and dividing. Responds to traumas
Osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells that deposit a matrix of collagen that hardens into bones
Osteoclasts
Large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix, releasing calcium ions into the blood
Osteocytes
mature bone cells
What happens to bones as we age?
They lose calcium and become brittle
Endocondral ossification
The cartilage model will grow in length by continuous cell division of chondrocytes, which is accompanied by further secretion of extracellular matrix.
Intramembranous offification
An ossification center appears in the fibrous connective tissue membrane. Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane. Woven bone and periosteum form. Bone collar of compact bone forms, and red marrow appears
Compact bone
Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone
Spongy bone
Layer of Bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone
Parathyroid hormone
Causes calcium to be released from bone (bones release calcium)
Calcitonin
Calcium gets deposited in bones (bones store calcium)
Bone remodeling
Minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, Vitamins A,C and D. Hormones and weight bearing excersises
Functions of Bones
Support, Protection, Movement, Storage of energy and minerals, Hematopoiesis
Bone matrix
The extracellular material of bone tissue, including ground substance and collagen fibers. Excludes the inorganic calcium salts.
haversian system
Central canals surrounded by osteons; contain the blood vessels and nerves that serve the bone. They bring nurishment to the bone
axial skeleton
the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
Appendicular skeleton
the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs
foramen
a natural opening or perforation through a bone or a membranous structure
vertebral foramen
Canal through which spinal cord passes
fontanel
any membranous gap between the bones of the cranium in an infant or fetus
Calcification
Accumulation of calcium salts in tissues.
Long bones
bones that are longer than they are wide
Short bones
cube-shaped bones having a spongy core, with limited movement
Flat bones
thin, flattened, and usually curved, two thin layers of compact sandwiching spongey bone (skull, ribs, sternum)
Irregular bones
bones that have complex shapes with short, flat, notched or ridged surfaces; examples are vertebrae that form the spinal column and several bones in the skull
osteoporosis
abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium
pelvic girdle
two coxal bones (aka hip bones)
Shoulder girdle
the bony arch formed by the collarbones and shoulder blades in humans
spina bifida
congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue
kyphosis
exaggerated posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hunchback)
Lordosis
Exaggerated anterior curvature of the lumbar or cervical spine (hollowback)
scoliosis
an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
flection
decrease angle at joint
extension
Increasing the angle between bones
abduction
Movement away from the midline
adduction
Movement toward the median plane of the body
rotation
circular movement around an axis
protraction
Moving a part forward (shoulder or jaw)
retraction
Moving a part backward (shoulder or jaw)
plantar flexation
Bending foot down (tiptoes)
Dorsal flexation
Bending foot up
Eversion
turning sole outward; weight on inner edge of the foot
Inversion
Turning sole inward; weight on outer edge of the foot
supination
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face upward
pronation
rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
elevation
lifting a body part superiorly
depression
Lowering a body part