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Fundamental Attribution Error
Misjuding that causes of other's behavior as due to internal causes rather than external
eastern cultures tend to be more collectivist and encourage people to blend in with the group, they blame external factors until western cultures
learned predisposition to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to a particular object
feelings of discomfort caused by a discrepancy between an attitude and behavior
learned, generally negative, attitude toward a specific people because of their membership in a group
cognitive aspect of prejudice, set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that apply to all members
Causes of prejudice
learning, mental shortcuts, economic and political competition, and displaced aggression
prejudice as learned response
children growing up see prejudice by parents or on TV/books, learn it is acceptable, they might also be praised for prejucial remarks
Prejudice as a mental shortcut
it is easier to make quick judgements and allows people to create in and outgroup
Prejudice from competition
when the dominant group eels threatened they maintain prejudice to protect their interests
Prejudice as displaced aggression
when frustration comes from something unbeatable, people scapegoat
men and women of approximately equal physical attractiveness tend to select each other as partners
liking vs. loving
loving couples look into each other's eyes more, love is more intense and made of: caring, attachment, intimacy
intense feeling of attraction to another within an erotic context and with future expectations
- based on mystery which doesn't work in long run
strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship
- overlook faults
Factors in obedience
legitimacy and closeness of authority
remoteness of victim
reduced self consciousness, inhibition, and personal responsibility that occurs in a group when members feel anonymous
groups move toward riskier or more conservative behavior depending on members initial dominant tendency
faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids inconsistent information
Biological Factors in Aggression
Instincts - evolved b/c of survival of fittest
brain and nervous system
Psychosocial Factors in Aggression
Aversive stimuli - noise etc. things that cause frustration
culture - different cultures value peace etc.
violent media - teach children that violence is acceptable
doing something that isn't compatible with aggression may reduce it (joke etc.
Ways to combat prejudice
cooperation and superordinate goals
increased contact (close interaction, interdependence, equal status)
cognitive retraining - pay attention to similarities
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