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60 terms

Ch. 16 Social Psychology

STUDY
PLAY
Attribution
an explanation for the cause of behavior or events
Dispositional Attribution
behavior comes from personality
Situational Attribution
behavior comes from environment
Fundamental Attribution Error
Misjuding that causes of other's behavior as due to internal causes rather than external
Saliency Bias
Focusing on the most noticeable factors when explaining causes of behavior
Self Serving Bias
taking credit for our successes and externalizing our failures
Different Cultures
eastern cultures tend to be more collectivist and encourage people to blend in with the group, they blame external factors until western cultures
Attitudes
learned predisposition to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to a particular object
Components of Attitudes
Cognitive, Affective, Behavioral
Cognitive Dissonance
feelings of discomfort caused by a discrepancy between an attitude and behavior
Prejudice
learned, generally negative, attitude toward a specific people because of their membership in a group
stereotype
cognitive aspect of prejudice, set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that apply to all members
discrimination
behavioral component of prejudice, action
Causes of prejudice
learning, mental shortcuts, economic and political competition, and displaced aggression
prejudice as learned response
children growing up see prejudice by parents or on TV/books, learn it is acceptable, they might also be praised for prejucial remarks
Prejudice as a mental shortcut
it is easier to make quick judgements and allows people to create in and outgroup
Ingroup favoritism
viewing members of an ingroup more positively than members of an outgroup
Outgroup homogeneity effect
judging members of an outgroup as more alike than members of an ingroup
Prejudice from competition
when the dominant group eels threatened they maintain prejudice to protect their interests
Prejudice as displaced aggression
when frustration comes from something unbeatable, people scapegoat
interpersonal attraction
positive feelings toward another
three factors in attraction
physical attractiveness, proximity, and similarity
Physical Attractiveness
looks are the most important initial factor
matching hypothesis
men and women of approximately equal physical attractiveness tend to select each other as partners
proximity
attraction base on geographic closeness
mere exposure
repeated exposure increases overall liking
need complementarity
attraction toward those with qualities we admire but personally lack
need compatibility
attraction based on sharing similar needs
liking vs. loving
loving couples look into each other's eyes more, love is more intense and made of: caring, attachment, intimacy
romantic love
intense feeling of attraction to another within an erotic context and with future expectations
- based on mystery which doesn't work in long run
companionate love
strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship
- overlook faults
Asch
experiement with people in groups deciding which line is more similar
conformity
changing behavior because of real or imagined group pressure
normative social influence
conforming to group pressure out of a need for approval and acceptance
norm
cultural rule for behavior describing what is acceptable in a given situation
Informational Social Influence
conforming because of a need for information and direction
reference groups
people we conform to because we like and admire them and want to be like them
obedience
following direct commands, usually from an authority figure
Milgram
shock experiement, 65% of people obeyed
Factors in obedience
legitimacy and closeness of authority
remoteness of victim
responsibility
modeling/immitation
relaxed moral guard
when people look good and trustworthy, we are more obedient
foot in the door
small request is used to get more later on
Zimbardo
prison study that had to be ended after 6 days b/c people took roles seriously,
deindividualization
reduced self consciousness, inhibition, and personal responsibility that occurs in a group when members feel anonymous
group polarization
groups move toward riskier or more conservative behavior depending on members initial dominant tendency
groupthink
faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids inconsistent information
Aggression
behavior intended to harm another living being
Biological Factors in Aggression
Instincts - evolved b/c of survival of fittest
genes
brain and nervous system
substance abuse
hormones
Psychosocial Factors in Aggression
Aversive stimuli - noise etc. things that cause frustration
culture - different cultures value peace etc.
violent media - teach children that violence is acceptable
Frustration-aggression hypothesis
blocking of a goal creates anger that leads to aggression
incompatible responses
doing something that isn't compatible with aggression may reduce it (joke etc.
Altruism
actions that help others with no benefit to the helper
egoistic model
helping is motivated by gain later on (less guilt, rewards)
empathy altruism hypothesis
helping because of empathy for someone in need
what has to happen for help?
notice, interpret, personal responsibility, decide how to help
diffusion of responsibility
group members spread out responsibilty so people don't help
Ways to combat prejudice
cooperation and superordinate goals
increased contact (close interaction, interdependence, equal status)
cognitive retraining - pay attention to similarities
cognitive issonance
socialization
we are taught by society to follow teachers etc.
power of situation
follow people who are in change
door in the face
ask for a lot in order to get just a little