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Science Chap 12 study guide
Terms in this set (68)
a system that does not exchange matter or energy with the environment
What is the difference between potential and kinetic energy?
kinetic - energy of motion
potential - have the potential to move
What are 3 types of potential energy that we have learned about?
gravitational, nuclear, chemical, elastic
What type of energy is found in shared electrons between atoms?
What type of energy is stored in the protons and neutrons of atoms?
What type of energy is released when one nucleus breaks into two?
What type of energy is released when two hydrogen atoms combine to become a helium atom?
What kind of nuclear energy is used at a nuclear power plant? What type of atom(s) is(are) involved?
Nuclear fission. Uranium, plutonium, cesium, strontium
What kind of energy is transformed into the solar radiation that leaves the sun?
Objects with potential energy must have _________ and _________. Why?
Hight and mass. Because its stores energy
Objects with kinetic energy must have _________ and _________. Why?
Motion and mass. Because its energy in motion
What is the energy of flowing electrons moving in a current?
__________ is the sum of all potential and kinetic energy of objects in a system while _________ is is the sum of potential and genetic energy of the particles, the vibrations, and the potential for vibration at a micropsopic, atomic scale.
Mickey has a bowling ball that masses at 4 pounds and she throws it at 5 m/h. Julia throws a 6 pound bowling ball at 5 m/h. How do their bowling balls compare in terms of kinetic energy?
- Julia has more kinetic energy
- Mickey 4x5=20; Julia 6x5=30
What energy travels in mechanical waves? Electromagnetical waves? Which of these can not travel through empty space, why?
kinetic. radiant. mechanical.
A kicked soccer ball is 10 feet above the earth and is traveling at 10 m/h. What would you call the combined potential and kinetic energy of this ball?
Suppose 85% of the chemical energy in flashlight batteries actually become radiant (visible light) energy that leaves the lightbulb. What happened to the other 15% of the original chemical energy? What other form(s)of energy were involved in this system? What transformations happened (diagram them out)? The _____ tells us that 15% of the energy wasn't destroyed.
thermal. light, chemical, heat. Law of conservation of energy
What is the difference between and energy transfer and transformation?
transfer - when it goes from one place to another (Ex. Hitting tennis ball)
transformation - changes from one type to another (ex. chemical to mechanical)
Give 4 examples of energy transfers. Describe the objects and forms of energy involved.
kicking soccer ball (mechanical). hitting anything is mechanical
Give 4 examples of energy transformations. Describe the objects and forms of energy involved.
chemical to mechanical to light to sound to heat
When measuring a kinetic energy transfer you can multiply the force applied on an object times the distance it moved to find the total ________ being done.
During any energy transfer or transformation energy is usually lost as _______ energy. What do we mean by "lost"
A _______ is a collection of moving parts that you can study as a physicist, the _______ in this case is considered everything outside of it
In nature _______ systems exist. However, scientists can use the idea of a _____ system in their models to do theoretical math
A human body gets chemical energy from its food, contains _______ energy in its ATP, ______ energy traveling in our nerves, and _______ energy of when we move. We release thermal energy that we create in our bodies and some undigested chemical energy in our "wastes". This makes us an ______ system. Why?
Chemical; electrical; kinetic; open. Because what comes in goes out
What makes a source renewable? Nonrenewable?
- Renewable - we have unlimited supply/infinite
- Nonrenewable - a limited supply
It takes a tree 100 years to grow. It takes earth millions of years to make coal. Sunlight hits earth every day. Which of these is renewable? Why?
- Sunlight is renewable
- Maybe trees too?
What are our renewable energy sources? What are our nonrenewable energy sources? (organize these into either category : coal, biomass, solar, wind, natural gas, geothermal, hydroelectric, nuclear fission, oil, propane)
- Renewable : biomass, hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal
- Nonrenewable : coal, nuclear fission, natural gas, oil, propane
Solar energy is ______ energy from the sun energy from the sun. Wind energy is _______ energy of moving air. Geothermal energy is _______ that can be used to create electricity
Radiant; kinetic; thermal
Hydroelectric energy uses a _______ to store energy in water held up high, this is _______. The water then falls down a tunnel, so it is trans______ into kinetic energy.
Dam or reservoir; renewable or gravitational potential energy; forms
What are 4 examples of fossil fuels? Why are they called fossil fuels?
- Coal, petroleum (oil), natural gas, propane
- They were created by fossils millions of years ago
Solar energy can be transformed directly into electricity using ______ cells. It can also be used to heat steam at a power plant, like other forms of electricity
Many forms of electrical power plants use turbines and generators. What is a turbine, what does it look like? What Is a generator, what does it do?
Coverts the energy into electrical energy
In nearly all of the power plants that make electricity.... Wind, steam, or moving water contains _______ energy and is trans______s to the ______ energy of a spinning turbine. The _______ energy of the turbine is _________ to kinetic energy inside the generator. The generator then trans______s this kinetic energy into ________ energy that leaves via wires to travel to houses, stores, and businesses
Potential; transformed; kinetic; kinetic; transferred; transforms; electrical
In the US 33% of our electricity comes from ________ power plants. Another 33% comes from ________ power plants. 20 % of our electricity comes from _______ power plants. These are all ________ resources and they provide most of the electricity for our country (86%)
Oil; natural gas; coal; nonrenewable
Of the renewable resources that we use, _______ provides the most electricity (6%) for the US, this is partly because it can provide A LOT of power with one power plant, and because we can rely on it for power in the day and night since it is using a large reservoir of stored energy. It is now closely followed by _______ at 5% of our electricity. All other forms of renewables provide a much smaller percentage of our electricity. Renewable energy use is slowly growing.
Solar energy; wind
the ability to cause change
stored energy due to the interactions between objects or particles
gravitational potential energy
energy that is stored in and released from the bonds between atoms
energy stored in and released from the nucleus of an atom
the breaking up of atoms
the combining of atom
energy due to motion
energy carried by an electric current
sum of the potential energy and kinetic energy in a system
the sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the particles that make up an object
A disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another without transferring matter
energy carried by sound waves
energy carried by an electromagnetic wave
Law of Conservation of Energy
the law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
the process of moving energy from one object to another without changing form
conversion of one form of energy to another
the amount of energy used as a force moves an object over a distance
a system that exchanges matter or energy with the environment
renewable energy sources
naturally replenished, won't run out
- solar, wind, hydroelectric, geothermal, biomass
nonrenewable energy source
an energy resource that is available in limited amounts or that is used faster than it is replaced in nature
- coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear
energy from the sun. renewable energy source
Energy derived from the heat in the interior of the earth. renewable energy source
energy from moving air. renewable energy source
Energy from plants and animals. renewable energy source
Electricity generated by flowing water. renewable energy source
Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals. nonrenewable energy source
A fossil fuel that forms underground from partially decomposed plant material. nonrenewable energy source
a flammable gas. nonrenewable energy source
a flammable gas
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