Unit 3: Self, Family, and Peers

STUDY
PLAY
Social Comparison
The process of comparing aspects of ones own psychological, behavioural, or physical functioning to that of other in order to evaluate oneself
Personal Fable
A form of adolescent egocentrism that involves beliefs in the uniqueness of ones own feelings and thoughts
Imaginary Audience
The belief, stemming from adolescent egocentrism, that everyone else is focused on the adolescents appearance and behaviour
Self-Esteem
An individuals overall subjective evaluation of his or her worth and the feeling he or she has about that evaluation
Identity
A description of the self that is often externally imposed, such as through membership in a group
Identity vs Role Confusion
The psychological stage of development that occurs during adolescence, when the young adult either develops an identity or experiences an incomplete and sometimes incoherent sense of self
Identity Achievement
An integration of various aspects of the self into a coherent whole that is stable over time and across events
Moratorium
Period in which the individual is exploring various occupational and ideological choices and has not yet made a clear commitment to them
Identity Diffusion
Period in which the individual does not have firm commitments regarding the issues in question and is not making progress toward developing them
Identity Foreclosure
Period in which the individual has not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established a vocational or ideological identity based on the choices of values of others
Family Dynamics
The way in which family members interact through various relationships; mother with each child, father with each child, mother with father, and siblings with one another
Socialization
The process through which children acquire the values, standards, skills, knowledge, and behaviours that are regarded as appropriate for their present and future roles in their particular culture
Discipline
The set of strategies and behaviours parents use to teach children how to behave appropriately
Internalization
Effective discipline that lead to a permanent change in the child's behaviour because the child has learned and accepted the desired behaviour
Punishment
A negative stimulus that follows a behaviour to reduce the likelihood that the behaviour will occur again
Parenting style
Parenting behaviours and attitudes that set the emotional climate in regard to parent-child interactions, such as parental responsiveness and demandingness
Authoritative Parenting
Parenting style high in demandingness and supportiveness
Authoritarian Parenting
Parenting style high in demandingness and low in responsiveness
Permissive Parenting
Parenting style low in demandingness and high in supportiveness
Uninvolved/Neglecting Parenting
Parenting style low in demandingness and supportiveness
Bidirectionality in Parenting
The idea that parents and their children are mutually affected by one another's characteristics and behaviours
Friend
A person with whom an individual has an intimate, reciprocated, positive relationship
Cliques
Friendship groups that children voluntarily form of join themselves
Crowds
Groups of adolescents who have similar stereotyped reputations
Gang
A loosely organized group of adolescents or young adults who identify as a group and often engage in illegal activities
Physical Bullying
Physically hurting or threatening to hurt someone
Verbal Bullying
Insulting, teasing, harassing, or intimidating someone
Social Bullying
Purposely excluding someone from conversations or activities, spreading rumours, or withholding friendship
Cyber bullying
The use of technology, including texts, emails, etc. To harass or upset another person
Sociometric Status
A measurement that reflects the degree to which children are liked or disliked by their peers as a group
Rejected Peer Status
A category of sociometric status that refers to children who are liked by few peers and disliked by many peers
Popular Peer Status
A category of sociometric status that refers to children who are viewed positively by many peers and viewed negatively by few peers
Aggressive-Rejected Peer Status
Category of sociometric status that refers to children who are especially prone to physical aggression, disruptive behaviour, delinquency, and negative behaviour such as hostility and threatening others
Withdrawn-Rejected Peer Status
A category of sociometric status that refers to rejected children who are socially withdrawn, wary, and often timid
Neglected Peer Status
Category of sociometric status that refers to children who are infrequently mentioned as either liked or disliked by peers; not noticed
Controversial Peer Status
Category of sociometric status that refers to children who are liked by many peers and disliked by many peers