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Evolution Unit Review (Ch 22-27)
Terms in this set (40)
Imagine two species that are thought to have a recent common ancestor. If this idea is correct, these two species most likely have ______.
several homologous structures
A number of scientists influenced Darwin's thinking about evolution. Which of the following scientists had proposed that the geological processes of the past (e.g., rivers forming valleys over time) were still in operation?
Under which of the following conditions could evolution by natural selection not occur?
no genetic variation in a population
Considering how MRSA arose, what is a reasonable prediction for what will happen as the new antibiotic "teixobactin" is applied to MRSA?
Some MRSA cells will be naturally resistant to teixobactin and will become more prevalent due to selection.
Should bat wings be considered homologous to whale flippers? Which of the following is the best answer and argument?
Yes. They have similar bone structure inherited from a common ancestor.
Adaptations can be thought of as features that increase an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a given environment. Which of the following factors can be considered adaptations?
using available shelter
In evolutionary terms, an organism's fitness is measured by its _____.
contribution to the gene pool of the next generation
Red short-horned cattle are homozygous for the red allele, white cattle are homozygous for the white allele, and roan cattle are heterozygotes. Population A consists of 36% red, 16% white, and 48% roan cattle. What are the allele frequencies?
red = 0.6, white = 0.4
Indicate which of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions is being violated in this example: Some moths on a tree are easier to see due to their lighter color and therefore are eaten by predators more often.
Indicate which of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions is being violated in this example: Male elephant seals show aggression toward other males, resulting in dominant males mating with several females and other males mating with few or no females.
random mating occurring
Indicate which of the Hardy-Weinberg conditions is being violated in this example: Due to global warming, a river has dried up, allowing two different rabbit populations that were previously isolated to mate with one another.
no gene flow
The textbook discusses how the conversion of quality habitat into farmland has greatly depleted the greater prairie chicken populations and, as a result, their genetic diversity. Which of the following occurred in this example?
Indicate what type of selection is occurring in this example: During a drought, it was discovered that finches with large beaks and those with small beaks were more successful due to the food sources available during the drought.
disruptive selection (diversifying selection)
The frequency of cystic fibrosis, a recessive genetic disease, is one per 2,500 births among Northern Europeans. Assuming random mating, what is the frequency of carriers?
1/25, or about 4%
Which of the following evolutionary mechanisms increases the amount of genetic variation in a population?
A high proportion of the cats on Key West have extra toes (polydactyly). What is the most likely explanation?
What is the ultimate source of new heritable variation in populations?
mutation (e.g., new alleles from errors in replication/recombination)
The cichlid Cynotilapia afra, introduced at West Thumbi Island in Lake Malawi in the 1960s, has split into two genetically distinct populations, located at the north and south ends of the island. How can scientists determine whether these populations are now different species, according to the biological species concept?
Determine whether individuals from one population will interbreed with individuals from the other population when introduced into each other's native habitats.
You spot a sea snake while you are in a boat on the Atlantic Ocean and remark about how similar it looks to a snake that lives in Arizona. However, you know that they are most likely separate species due to which of the following reproductive barriers?
The fossil record shows that many species remain constant for long periods of time, but then speciation episodes occur rapidly. This is best described as _____.
The biological species concept relies on a disruption of which aspect of population genetics?
Bacteria reproduce primarily in an asexual manner. Accordingly, which species concept is difficult to apply to bacterial species?
biological species concept
Euhadra is a genus of Japanese land snail in which some species have right-handed shell spirals and other species have left-handed shell spirals. Snail with right-hand shells cannot physically mate with left-hand shell snails. Which is the best hypothesis for an isolating barrier between right- and left-handed Euhadra species?
Which of the following could facilitate allopatric speciation?
all of the above, depending on the species
Which of the following organelles likely originated from endosymbiosis?
chloroplasts and mitochondria
How many mass extinction events have been documented in the fossil record over the past 500 million years?
According to geological evidence, which event may have triggered the Permian mass extinction?
global warming caused by volcanic eruptions
A species of bird finds its way to the Galápagos Islands, where there are several ecological niches. This species evolves into many new species to fill all the unfilled niches. This is an example of
Which of the following best explains the loss of ventral spines in threespine stickleback fish?
changes in the regulatory sequences of the Pitx1 gene
When did the mass extinction that eliminated most dinosaurs occur?
66 million years ago
The many finch species on the Galápagos Islands arose through adaptive radiation. Which piece of evidence would best support this claim?
The Galápagos finch species are more closely related to each other genetically than they are to non-Galápagos finches.
Which would be the most suitable outgroup species for a cladogram involving the other answer choices?
Which is the correct way to write the scientific name for humans?
When describing a group of animals, you speak about an ancestral species and some but not all of its descendants. This is an example of a _____.
Hair on mammals when compared to other vertebrates is an example of a _____.
shared derived character
You discover two trees that each have thorns to protect them from herbivores, but they are in different classes of plants, and many nonthorny plants are between them on the tree of life. What has happened?
Prokaryotes lack some parts found in eukaryotic cells, including which item?
a nuclear membrane
Which statement about biofilms would lose points on an exam?
They are uncommon in nature.
much decomposition in soil would stop.
PCR would be much more difficult to do.
plants would have fewer soil nutrients to absorb.
there would be less methane in the world.
Which is least associated with prokaryotes?
total global photosynthesis
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