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Imperialism & WWI
Terms in this set (52)
The actions of one nation to exercise political or economic control over a weaker nation
A country that is technically independent but is actually under the control of another country
The idea that English-speaking countries were superior to other countries. Used to justify imperialism by English-speaking countries (like Britain).
• Matthew C. Perry
American naval officer who led a naval expedition to Japan (1852) and encouraged Japan to open trade with the U.S.
• Alford Thayer Mahan
U.S. naval officer who wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" which pointed out that prosperous nations needed strong navies and overseas naval bases to protect trade interests around the world. His views gained support for the U.S. to build a large navy
• Yellow Journalism
Sensational, biased, often false reporting by the media to attract readers. (Yellow journalists created support for the Spanish-American War by writing sensational articles about the sinking of the US battleship Maine in Cuba's Havana Harbor.)
• USS Maine
An American naval ship that exploded off the coast of Cuba. Americans blamed Spain and this turned public opinion in favor of war (with Spain).
Treaty of Paris
Ended the Spanish American War. Terms: Cuba was freed, US annexed Guam and Puerto Rico, US paid $20 million to Spain for the Philippines.
• Platt Amendment
The United States' policy toward Cuba. Attached conditions to Cuba's independence (after the Spanish American War): 1) Cuba could not make treaties with other countries. 2) Must allow US naval bases in Cuba. 3) Must keep debt to other countries low. 4) US had right to intervene to keep order and protect Cuban independence.
• William Randolph Hearst
News paper publisher who used yellow journalism to sell papers.
• Joseph Pulitzer
News paper publisher who used yellow journalism to sell papers.
• Theodore Roosevelt
US war hero who lead the "Rough Riders" to victory in Cuba. Later became US President. His approach to diplomacy was to "Speak softly and carry a big stick"
• Howard Taft
U.S. governor of the Philippines (and later US President). Taft tried to win Philippines over by improving education, health, and transportation.
• Woodrow Wilson
US President during WWI. He proposed a League of Nations and his "Fourteen Points" to ensure world peace after the war.
intense form of nationalism calling for an aggressive foreign policy
Patriotic principles, feelings, and efforts
information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
irregular fighting, typically against larger regular forces.
• Sphere of Influence
An area where a foreign nation controls economic development.
• Open Door Policy
A policy that allows all countries to trade with a certain country. The U.S. pushed for an open door policy in China in order to prevent a European and Japanese monopoly of China's trade markets. US Secretary of State John Jay negotiated this open door policy, which kept Chinese ports open to vessels of all nations.
• Monroe Doctrine
(1823) U.S. policy that European attempts to interfere with Latin America would be considered an act of aggression by the U.S. (The U.S. would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary).
• Roosevelt Corollary
The U.S. policy to intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain economic and political stability (Allowed for the US to "police" Latin American nations).
• Dollar Diplomacy
President Taft's policy of supporting Latin American industry (with $) to increase trade and profits for U.S. business and to lift Latin Am countries out of poverty and social disorder. Allowed the US to gain influence through economic ($) incentives. It also protected US investments in Latin America.
• Panama Canal
US wanted to build a canal through Panama to connect The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Colombia controlled Panama and refused give the US rights to build the canal. President Roosevelt sent the Navy to Panama, supported revolt against Colombia, recognized Panama's independence and gained rights to build the Panama Canal. This is a good example of Roosevelt's "Speak softly and carry a big stick" approach to foreign policy.
The idea that those who share a national identity should have their own country and government. This led to a crisis in the Balkan region that sparked WWI.
Britain, France, Russia (and later the USA)
• Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
The spreading of ideas for the purpose of influencing public opinion (in this case for or against joining WWI).
A German submarine.
• Sussex Pledge
Germany's promise to end unrestricted submarine warfare and only sink military ships and ships that were carrying war supplies.
• Zimmerman Telegram
A secret German telegram sent to Mexico to try to get them to ally with Germany and attack the United States. In return Germany promised to return lands Mexico had lost to the US (Texas, New Mexico, Arizona).
• Gavrillo Princip
Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, sparking WWI.
• Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the Austro-Hungarian Throne who was assassinated by a Bosnian Serb, which started WWI.
• Boxer Rebellion
Chinese nationalist attacked foreign settlements and murdered dozens of christian missionaries.
Forcing a person to join the military. "Drafting" a person into the military. The Selective Service Act (1917) required all men in the US between 21 and 30 to register for the draft.
War Industries Board
US agency that coordinated the production of war materials during WWI.
Small gardens people grew at home during WWI to increase food production.
Liberty Bonds & Victory Bonds
Small individuals loans to the US government (by citizens) to help fund the war.
Committee on Public Information
formed by President Wilson to help "sell" the war to the American people.
Spying to acquire government information. The Espionage Act made it illegal to aid the enemy, give false reports, or interfere with the war effort.
An agreement to stop fighting. In 1918 an armistice ended the fighting in WWI.
President Wilson's plan for world peace after WWI. Based on the principle of justice to all peoples and nationalities.
League of Nations
An organization of nations working together to preserve peace. Proposed by President Wilson. In an effort to isolate itself from future European conflicts, the United States refused to join the League of Nations.
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty (agreement) that ended WWI. It called for : Disarmament (reducing militaries), Reparations (Germany must pay for damage caused by war), Creation of new countries (based on ethnic similarities). The US did not ratify (accept) this treaty because they wanted to stay free from foreign entanglements.
Payment of war damages by the losing country (Germany).
President of the US during WWI. He justified asking congress to declare war on Germany by saying "the world must be made safe for democracy". Wilson proposed the 14 Points after the war and the League of Nations as efforts to preserve future peace.
Cost of Living
The price of things greatly increased after WWI.
The fear of the spread of communism.
To force someone to leave a country. Fear of communism lead to many Russians being deported from the US.
A Mitchell Palmer
Established the FBI and conducted the "Palmer Raids" on Russian unions in several cities.
J. Edgar Hoover
Eventual head of the FBI and President
Governor of Massachusetts who supported the firing of Boston policemen who went on strike for higher pay. Later became US President.
Why did Imperialism spread so fast?
why were the Europeans able to expand their power in Africa and Asia?
the US wanted to build a canal across Panama to
What are some reasons for imperialism?
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