The Coming of Independence

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same rights as Britain
colonists believed they should have the...
British government
believed the American view was dangerous
no taxation without representation
Britain had no right to tax them because the colonies were not represented in the British Parliament
Virginia House of Burgess
approved 4 reasons for no taxation without representation
Patrick Henry
leader of the Virginia House of Burgess
liberties, privileges, franchise, and immunities
Patrick Henry insisted that the colonists enjoyed the same ____________ as British residents
colonies could not be taxed
because they were not represented in Parliament (actual vs. visual representation)
French and Indian War
18th century war between France and England
land in the New World
contested in the French and Indian War
1754
start of French and Indian War
Iroquios
sided with the French when profitable, but also sided with the British
>mostly French allies
(F%I war)
Iroquios
sided with the French when profitable, but also sided with the British
>mostly French allies
(F&I war)
fur trade
merchants invested ______ in Ohio Country
if French claim was established
then British would be driven out, Virginia merchants loose money
Virginia governor (Dinwiddle)
ordered Washington (general of Virginia militia) to warn French to leave Virginia
Fort Duquesne
where Washington, his men and native American allies surprised the French
massacred by Native Americans
French (battle of Fort Duquesne)
French
massacred by Native Americans (battle of Fort Duquesne)
Fort Necessity
the French attacked
Washington
negotiated withdraw and surrendered(Fort Necessity)
Britain
when new reached England, _____ sent troops to dislodge the French
caused the colonists to dislike British officials
first time colonists fought in British (F&I War)
the expense of war
caused England to impose the first direct taxes on the colonists
George Grenville
imposed British taxes on colonists
issued by King George III
Royal Proclamation of 1763
Royal Proclamation of 1763
forbid anyone to settle West of the Appalachian mountains
ignored by colonists
Royal Proclamation of 1763 because they thought they deserved the land for fighting the F&I war
first sign of colonists defying British authority
ignoring the Proclamation of 1763 ( no longer followed blindly)
first direct tax on the colonists
sugar act of 1764
sugar act
only applied to colonists - they felt it was unfair
colonists view on the sugar act
they were Englishmen and the whole British empire profited by the war, so the whole empire should pay
British response to colonists (sugar act)
they were technically Englishmen, but in reality just colonists. Second step to the revolution
stamp act of 1765
a tax placed on all paper goods. To get paper you had to buy it with a stamp or logo already printed to show the tax had been paid
everything done on paper
18th century society
>therefore the stamp act effected everyone
royal stamp act collectors
were often seized and tarred (most time molasses) and feathered
importance of the stamp act
first act to effect everyone rich or poor
stamp act congress
>formed in October 1765
>swore allegiance to the Crown and subordination to Parliament
made up the Stamp Act congress
27 delegates from 9 colonies
New York
were stamp act congress met
consent to taxation
colonies believed _______________ was "essential to the freedom of a people"
boycott British good until stamp act repealed
colonists response to Stamp Act
American colonies
united to fight the Stamp Act
sons of liberty
started in 1765 in response to the Stamp Act
made up the sons of liberty
merchants who oppose "any limitation on trade and tax on it"
sons of liberty
led the boycott of British goods
smugglers
colonists
>free market capitalists believing they could trade with anyone
English Bill of Rights
stated accused smugglers had right to trial by jury of peers
smugglers trial
took place in hometown
>juries made up of people in these towns
>>smuggler would often be related to/ friends with members of the jury
colonial towns
were small
though obviously guilty
smugglers were often never acquitted
Writ of Assistance
issued to enforce stricter laws on smuggling
A Writ of Assistance
search warrant that never expires and doesn't specify what house is searched, gave Royal authorities right to search any house whenever they wanted
expanded government power too far
colonists believed Writs of Assistance _________
The Virginia Resolves
passed by the Virginia General Assembly in response to Stamp Act of 1765
Virginia resolves claim
in accordance with British law, Virginia was subject to taxation by only parliamentary assembly to which Virginians themselves elected representatives
the Virginia General Assembly
since no colonial representatives were elected to the Parliament the only assembly legally allowed to raise taxes
Boston Massacre
5 civilian deaths caused by British troops which sparked rebellion in some American colonies leading to the American Revolution
heavy British presence in Boston
led to brawls between soldiers and civilians
solider's weapon fired after slipping on ice
troops discharging their muskets after being attacked by rioting crowd
died because of BM
> Samuel Grey (instantly)
>mariner James Caldwell (instantly)
>sailor Crispus Attucks (instantly)
>Samuel Maverick (hours later)
>Patrick Carr (two weeks later)
post BM
Britain removed all troops from Boston to a fort on Castle Island in Boston Harbor to restore peace
Captain Preston and 4 men
alleged to have fired shots and indicted for murder
soldiers at BM
defended by John Adams
local government of the Thirteen Colonies
organized the committees of correspondence
committees of correspondence
coordinate written communication outside of the colonies
beginning of formal political union
committees of correspondence
tea drinking
begun as status of wealthy but became popular with all classes
trouble with Britain's East India Company
caused the British government to sell and market Chinese tea in colonies
East India Company
is able to sell low prices to the colonies
tax from tea sales
helped defray the cost of colonial government. This threatened the assemblies control over financed
British East India Company
was a private corporation that ran India for the British government
exclusive monopoly of tea in colonies
given to East India Company when in financial trouble
angered colonists
NOT TEA PRICES
> the fact that Parliament gave a monopoly to the company and put colonial tea merchants out of business
cheaper tea
from local smuggler than the company
Tea monopoly given to the company
led to boycott of all company of tea
Boston Tea Party
officials in Boston refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea to Britain so Colonists boarded the ships and threw tea into the Boston Harbor
colonists objected the Tea Act
because they believed that it violated their rights to be taxed only by their own elected representatives
Boston Royal Governor (Thomas Hutchinson)
refused to return the tea rather than concede the authority of a legislature in which they were not directly represented
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
Parliaments response to the Boston Tea Party until the BEIC was repaid for the destroyed tea
protests
how colonists responded to the Intolerable Acts
1st Continental Congress
convened in Philadelphia and petitioned the British King for repeal of the acts and coordinated colonial resistance to them
Intolerable Acts
stopped town meetings, authorized governor to appoint previously elected council members, and allowed soldiers to live in private homes
intolerable acts
direct threat to colonists political freedom
Suffolk Resolves
delegates from Massachusetts towns met to pass resolutions urging Americans to not obey new laws, without taxes, and prepare for war
Georgia
did not send a delegate to the first CC because only colony funded by British
Continental Association
adopted at first CC
>an almost complete halt to trade with Great Britain and West Indies
committee of safety
adopted at first CC
>began process of transferring political power from governments appointed by the Crown to grassroots bodies
committee of safety
adopted at first CC
>began process of transferring political power from governments appointed by the Crown to grassroots bodies
minutemen
teams of select men from the American colonies during the American Revolutionary War
minutemen
rapidly deployed force that allowed the colonies to respond immediately to war threats
minutemen
rapidly deployed force that allowed the colonies to respond immediately to war threats
resistance methods
>boycott
>Public Meetings/debate
>Pamphlets
>Homespun
>> homespun clothing
>>daughters of liberty
Paul Revere
a night-time messenger on horseback before the battles of Lexington and Concord
"Midnight ride"
April 18/April 19, 1775 when Revere and Dawes were instructed by Dr. Warren to ride from Boston to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams of the movements of the British Army, which was beginning a march from Boston to Lexington to arrest John Hancock and Adams and seize the weapons at Concord
British Army regulars
under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, had secret orders to capture and destroy military supplies reportedly stored by the Massachusetts militia in Concord
Patriot colonials
received word weeks before the expedition that their supplies might be at risk and had moved most of them to another location
Lexington
first shots were fired here (battle of L&C)
North Bride Concord
where 500 minutemen defeated three companies of the King's troops (battle of L&C)
pitched battle in open territory
the outnumbered regulars fell back from the minutemen (battle of L&C)
Lieutenant General Hugh Percy
Smith's expedition was rescued by _____ reinforcements. Both the British forces together eventually breached the safety of Charleston
Siege of Boston
minutemen blockaded the narrow land access to Charleston and Boston
1/3 of colonists
decided not to participate in the revolution activities of the patriots
those who did not participate
Quakers that did not believe in war and farmers who were apolitical
Loyalists
those who held strong loyalty to the King and to England and thought the Patriots were simply trying to stir up trouble
May 1775
second continental congress
second continental congress
authorized raising of army, money to pay for it, and appointed George Washington as commander of the forces
Britain's response to the second CC
>declared colonies in a state of rebellion
>dispatched thousands of troops
>closed all colonial ports
Olive Branch Petition
written by CC to King George III which was rejected
made in hopes to reconcile with the King
Olive Branch Petition
Thomas Paine
wrote the Olive Branch Petition
The Green Mountain Boys
Ethan Allen led a group in a surprise attack on Fort Ticonderoga, located at the Southern tip of Lake Champlain
1st major battle of bunker hill
the defense of Boston was dependent on the control of various hilltop positions in the surroundings areas
Artillery mounted on heights
could command the water approaches and reach portions of the city itself
Artillery mounted on heights
could command the water approaches and reach portions of the city itself
Breed's Hill
closer to Boston rose to 65 ft
Moulton's Hill
rose to 35 ft
Dorchester Heights
south of the city, looked down on Boston's prosperous docks and maritime businesses
topography of the Massachusetts Bay Area
in the 18th century differed Boston and Charleston were then located on peninsulas that connected to the mainland by narrow strips of land known as "necks" massive landfills over the years have vastly reduced the original river and channels and bays
British troops
charged Bunker hill multiple times
American Colonel Prescott
ordered "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes" (Bunker Hill)
Bunker Hill
where the Patriots retreated to while low on ammunition/ gun powder (Bunker Hill)
over 40%
British causalities at Bunker Hill
proved the British were not invincible
Battle of Bunker Hill
Bunker Hill
became a symbol of national pride and a rallying point of resistance against British rule
outcome of Bunker Hill
the under trained, undermanned, and under supplied Continental Army can stand up to the superior British Army/Navy
Thomas Paine
author, pamphleteer, radical, revolutionary
>emigrated to the British American colonies in 177 and participated in the American Revolution
Common Sense
written by Thomas Paine advocating colonial America's independence from Great Britain.
Declaration of Independence
adopted by the CC on July 4, 1776
>Announced 13 colonies at war with Britain were independent states
Thomas Jefferson
primary author of the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
formal explanation of independence from Britain
asserted natural rights
Declaration of Independence
Virginia and Massachusetts
largest areas of patriots
20,000 troops
max number of troops under his command at one time
rarely paid, low supplies, poorly equipped
problems the Patriot army faced
Battle of Trenton
Christmas Day 1776, Washington's army crossed the Delaware river having heard the German mercenaries were spending the evening relaxing
morning
when Washington surprised the Hessian
No colonial deaths
at the Battle of Trenton
victory at Trenton
morale booster for colonial army
American Tories
60,000
New York, New Jersey, and Georgia
largest groups of Tories
Canada or Britain
where Tories flee after war
Native Americans
supported British
limit colonial settlement in the West
Britain's promise to the Native Americans
African Americans
initially rejected by Washington but when Britain promised freedom to those who fought Washington accepted them
Battle of Saratoga
turning point in the war
British surrender
was instrumental in bringing French into the war as an American ally, having previously given supplies to us at Saratoga
French participating
changed the war to global conflict and also resulted in Spain contributing to the war on the American side
Continental Army
lost Battle of Philadelphia
Valley Forge
Colonial retreat
Benedict Arnold
General during the American Revolutionary war
>began the war in the Continental Army; later defected to the British Army
13
amount of Frigates the Colonial navy had
>most destroyed or captured
Colonial Navy
authorized by Continental Congress
John Paul Jones
"father of the American Navy"
>raided British ports
North and south Carolina
key turning point battles
Battle of Yorktown
American and French forces control key land and sea areas at Yorktown
>combined assault of American forces led by Washington and French forces led by general Rochambeau.
battle of Yorktown
last major battle of the American Revolutionary War
treaty of Paris
ended the war officially
>Britain recognized United States as a United Nation
western boundary line
Mississippi River
Northern Boundary
Great Lakes
Southern Boundary
Florida
fishing rights
Americans had ______ off the coast of Canada