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Phil Psych Final - Crifasi Fall 2018
Terms in this set (76)
What is Socrates conclusion about what we are and what we aren't?
We have intelligent souls that existed before our bodies.
what is his argument for that? (1)
1. No 2 things are perfectly equal
2. we judge this with our senses
3. however, we must have knowledge of the ideal to make this judgement
4. we must have this knowledge before ever using our senses- i.e. at birth
5. So we either know ideals all our life, or know them and then forget, and remember over lifetime
6. We don't always know them- we can't explain ideals always, since we were born
7. So, we knew and then forgot
8. To know before birth, we must have existed before our bodies
According to Aristotle, what is the capcity we possess that does not rank higher in accuracy than these developed states?
the capacity of sensation
what doe experience develop out of?
repeated memories of the same thing produce experience
from what does the skill of craftsman and the knowledge of the man of science originate?
These come from universal knowledge, which is from experience, memory, and the senses
what is Aristotle's alternative to the views that knowledge is innate in a determinate form and that it is developed from other higher states of knowledge?
knowledge is developed from sensation
In Aristotle's FIRST chapter on the soul, what is his argument that soul and body are not the same?
Matter is potentially a certain thing. Form makes it a certain kind of thing.
The body is matter, because it can be a living being or a corpse. The soul is the form of the body, makes it living.
It is not matter- it is form.
Aristotle's FINAL definition of the soul in THIS chapter?
The first grade of actuality of an organized natural being
Explain how he reaches this definition
actuality can mean
1. possessing something
2. actually using the capacities attached to having it
We can live without doing things that characterize being alive. We are alive when we are asleep and not walking and talking.
So the soul is the actuality in the first sense- the first grade of actuality of a body that potentially has life
Explain how this distinguishes his view from dualism. Use the wax seal example
This definition shows the soul and body are not one.
Actuality is not a separate thing from what has the actuality.
A shape stamped in wax is not Identical with the wax, but they aren't separated. They are together one thing.
Similarly, the soul and the body are together one thing- matter and form cannot exist independently.
Explain why this view of the soul is opposed to those who want to fit the soul in just any body.
That whereby you can know/be healthy can mean
1.the ability to know/be healthy
2.the mind or body that is knowing/being healthy
The a's are the actualizations of b
The soul is the actualization of a body, we know.
So there is a b, something to be actualized, a body.
The soul can only actualize a body that has the potential to be besouled.
what is physically true about all sense organs for all the senses? why?
Senses exist between two opposite extremes. e.g. touch is neither hot nor cold itself. IF it was, those would be indiscernible to it.
What can perceive a the extremes must actually be neither, and potentially be both
state Aristotle's definition of sensation
A sense is the power of receiving into itself the sensible forms of things without matter
what is Aristotle's argument that the mind is not blended with the body in any way?
The mind would have to be physical. The mind, given enough time, can comprehend any physical thing in the universe. The perceiver must lack the perceived, or it would be indiscernible. Therefore, the mind lack the nature of any physical thing.
according to Aristotle, what conditions are necessary for an act to be voluntary?
1. you, the agent, move yourself
2. you are aware of the circumstances
give one of Aristotle's arguments that choice is not the same as voluntariness
Things done spur of the moment are voluntary but not chosen.
Children act voluntarily, without choice. (they lack rationality)
appetite is contrary to choice, but things are done voluntarily by appetite
state Aristotle's definition of choice
choice is deliberate desire of things in our power
according to st. Thomas Aquinas, what exactly makes our judgement free? why?
our judgement is free because it is based on knowledge, not instinct. it can hold multiple options and select which is desired. It is not determined to one course of action.
explain descartes' arguments that the senses are uncertain
They can deceive us- in dreams we have the illusion of doing things, and there are no certain signs we are just dreaming.
Also, things far away are sensed as being small.
if the senses deceive us even once, they can no longer be trusted.
What can we still be certain about? why isn't it subject to the same doubts?
We can be certain we exist, because we can thinkg.
That is not subject to the doubts of all things being an illusion, because even if everything is an illusion, we have to exist to be deceived.
explain descartes' argument that he is wholly distinct from his body?
knowledge is not based on the senses- they deceive.
if the whole physical world was illusory, I would still know I exist.
I don't know it's NOT an illusion.
Yet I know I am real. So if I am for sure, but my body isn't, I must be distinct from my body.
what is Aristotle's response to the argument that things appear differently to those asleep?
things appearing a certain way need not be true- even if people argue with this their actions confirm it.
If you dream you are in Athens while in Libya, he says, you don't get up and head to the concert hall.
Aristotle's final reponse to those who ask who is to judge who is the healthy observer and who is defective?
they ask a reason for something that doesn't need one.
they demand a starting point, but then demand proof for it, though it is obvious by their actions they don't doubt it.
what analogy does locke use for the mind?
It's like a blank page, and it is filled by experience
according to locke, what are the sources of all our ideas? give examples for each
when perceptions form in our minds through sensing external objects.
red, hot, cold, rough, loud
our perception of the activity of our own mind
knowing, liking, hating, grieveing
explain composition and give an example
putting together simple ideas from sensation and reflection, making a new complex idea.
e.g. say a donut is a simple idea- you can put together these simple ideas and come up with the complex idea of a dozen
what is locke's evidence that other animals don't do this?
1 a mother dog will not notice if you take one of her puppies. She won't notice the difference in number, because she has no idea of the complex idea of number.
2 If you replace one of the puppies with a baby fox, she will treat it as her own, because she has no idea of the complex idea of her species
why do we make general ideas?
If we had names for every individual idea, they would be endless
explain abstraction and give an example
abstraction is making general ideas.
1. Look at a group of ideas, simple or complex
2. note something they have in common
3. separate that thing in common from the particular circumstances
4. name it and use it to describe them all
1.milk, paper, rabbits and snow
2. they are all white
3. imagine the whiteness without the particular objects, and call it white.
Locke's evidence that animals do not abstract
They don't use language. They don't use signs to communicate general ideas.
They could physically, but don't, so it must be they don't understand general ideas.
Locke's complex ideas are different from Aristotle's universals how?
Complex ideas are single ideas composed of simple ideas. They don't describe all things of their kind.
Abstraction does not equal composition
Hume's argument that we have no idea of self?
Ourself is what all our impressions refer to.
We are the same self our whole life.
So the imressions referring to our self must be the same our whole life then.
But they aren't- happiness and sadness and such al take turns.
No constant unchanging impression exists to form the idea of self. So there is none.
When he thinks about himself, what does he always find, and what doesn't he find?
he always finds a perception like hot or cold.
he isn't able to catch himself without some perception. He can't find the self that has the perceptions.
so what does hume conclude we are?
a bundle of constantly and rapidly changing perceptions
according to hume, what is the difference between impressions and ideas? give examples
impressions and ideas differ in force and vivacity.
impressions come from external objects- e.g. the smell and taste of an apple
ideas are the images of impressions in our minds- e.g. remembering the taste of an apple without physically tasting
hume's example of a simple impression and a complex impression.
simple impression- the tast and smell and feel of an apple
complex impression- the sense of all together, sensing the whole apple at once without dissecting into different simple impressions.
how are simple ideas and simple impressions related?
simple ideas are always preceded by, come from, and exactly match a simple impression they correspond to
state hume's first principle of the science of human nature
all ideas proceed mediately or immediately from corresponding impressions
what does mill say he is NOT going to talk about?
the nature of the mind. he will stick to laws of the mind.
what is mill's argument against the position that sensations are states of body?
it is a common mistake to call the cause of a thing and the thing itself by the same name.
state's of body cause sensation, but sensation itself is a state of mind.
If the word mind means anything, it means that which feels
what does mill say is the difference between laws of mind and body?
Law of mind= governs when a state of mind is caused by a state of mind
Law of body= governs when a state of mind is caused by a state of body
what are mill's arguments against psychology being physiology, because every mental state has a nervous state as its immediate cause?
1. It is probable that nervous states precede mental states, bu we can't prove it.
2. Next, assuming this is true, science can't tell us enough about how that process works.
We can't derive any information on mental states directly from physiology.
We have to depend on direct observation- psychology.
state one of his examples of general laws of mind
two impression frequently experienced together- when one recurs, it will excite the other
according to dewey, what is our psychic life not like?
it's not like a machine, with parts, dissectible. it has no breaks, or individual components.
what is the mind notlike?
It is not a box of powers separated into departments
how does dewey describe what earlier psychologists did in their experiments?
They used fewer, simpler, more abstract explanations.
what is Dewey's answer to the accusation that physiological psychology tires to explain all psychic life by reference to the nervous system?
phsyiologists know that psychical states can't be fully explained physiologically.
They don't pretend to talk about what psychical states are, just physical causes. (a map tells you about the physical aspects of a country, not its nature- culture)
What did physiological psychology introduce to produce a revolution in psychology, and what are the two chief elements of that?
a new method- experimentation
1. experimenter controls conditions of experiment
2. use of QUANTITATIVE measurement
according to dewey, psychologically speaking what is a landscape NOT? what is it?
it is not a simple, ultimate fact.
it is a complex judgment, it is built of all kinds of sensations, interest and interpretations.
according to William james, what is the synthetic method?
start with simple ideas of sensation, build to higher states of mind
explain what james means when he says that every state or thought is part of a personal consciousness
thoughts don't exist just floating around on their own. they always belong to someone.
thoughts exist in a mind, and no other way.
even thinking of a thought makes it yours.
The basic datum of psychology is not thought- it is my thought.
what is some evidence that james gives for his view that consciousness is in constant change?
no mental state will reoccur exactly as it existed before. the object can be gotten twice, but context changes.
according to james, why exactly does that mean he can't agree with locke?
Locke talks about building complex ideas, higher states, out of permanent simple ones.
explain how james' claim that thought is sensibly continuous is compatible with gaps in consciousness.
when you wake up from sleep or being unconsciousness, you still connect old experiences with the present moment. you pick up where you left off. your reality is the same.
explain how james' claim that thought is sensibly continuous is compatible with sudden contrasts like thunder.
a sudden sharp break might seem to happen when there is a sudden contrast. however, your consciousness continues, as is seen by the fact that you sense the contrast. Thunder is loud only because you have experience of the quiet and you retained that. the same consciousness is there
explain the difference between substantive and transitive parts of the stream of thought
Substantive- can be held static in the mind indefinitely and contemplated. Think of a bird on a wire.
Transitive- lead from one substantive state to another. Relations, flowing around every substantive thought. They give value to substantives; stopping them makes them substantive
Think of a bird flying.
how does james use that distinction to respond to hume?
Hume wants definite perfected thoughts as his main tenet.
But definite thoughts are only a small part of the mind.
explain one of james' arguments that ideas have fringes.
When we try to remember a name we forgot, there is a gap in our consciousness, but it is an active gap. If we hear the wrong name, we know its wrong. It is an intense feeling. The gap of one word is not like another.
state his definition of what he calls a fringe
The "halo of relations" around an image is the fringe of the mind.
james says that consciousness is always interested more in one part of its object than in another.
How is that true about sense organs?
1. senses pick up on stimuli of certain velocities and parameters, and ignore the rest, forming you rimage of the world.
2. of the things you pick up on in 1, the mind selects what is useful, suppresses the rest. We notice only those which are signs of things practically aesthetically interesting.
3. The mind likewise decides what sensations of a thing are the truest representation.
Considers the rest mere appearances.
what specifically does JJ Smart say that sensations are? explain.
beyond an arrangement of particles, sensations do not exist.
They report brain processes, nothing more.
according to methodological behaviorism, what should psychology be about, and what shouldn't it be about? why?
it should not be about the existence or non-existence of the mind.
It should only be about objectively observable behaviors.
This is because psychology is a science and science should be based on objectively observable data.
Logical behaviorism was chiefly a movement in philosophy unlike methodological.
It claimed a statement about a person's mental state means nothing but a set of statements about their actual and possible behavior.
e.g. jones believes it will rain=jones will close the windows and jones will carry and umbrella
what is Chomsky's objection to methodological behaviorism?
Is physics the study of meter readings? neither is psychology the study of behavior- that is just a metric or evidence, and should not be confused with the actual subject matter.
explain Searle's two objections to logical behaviorism
1. if they try to explain Jones belief it will rain, they describe his behavior avoiding getting wet.
buty they act on the assumption he wants to be dry. They are left with an unexplained mental state.
There is a circularity in reduction.
2. They neglect the causal relationship between internal states and external actions. My internal states cause me to do things, I know intuitively. Means mental states are not just behaviors. Came before.
what is physicalism or identity theory?
Identity theory says minds are identical with brains, so mental states are identical with brain states
what is Searle's first (technical) objection against identity theory?
It violates Liebnitz's law.
if two things are identical they must have all their properties in common.
you can have a brain state at a certain spot in your brain. do you have a thought there? no. that is one property (location) they do not have in common.
Also, you can have a conscious state, say a pain in your toe- but the brain state doesn't occur in your toe- it's in your brain. location not shared.
What is Searle's common sense objection to identity theory?
If the identity was an empirical identity- if it could be identified as a matter of fact-
It would need to be two kinds of properties on both sides of the identity statement.
That is, if we say lightning and electrical discharge are identical, then you have to see the identity in terms of both
1. its lightning properties
2. its electrical discharge properties
what is functionalism?
functionalism says that brain states are mental states when they have a certain type of function in the overall behavior of the organism
Using functionalism, explain the belief that it is raining
Mr Jones has a state or process in him
produced by external stimuli
together with other factors like desire
causing him to react in a certain way. This reaction is his belief.
"such causal relationships is all there is to having a belief"
what is strong artificial intelligence?
the view that the mind is to the brain as the program is to the computer.
An appropriately programmed computer does not just simulate a mind. it IS one.
State the Turing Test and what it is supposed to prove.
The turing test asks:
Does the system perform in a way that is indiscernible by an expert from human performance?
It seeks to prove that any system that performs the same as the mind IS the same as the mind.
Explain how Jackson's "Mary didn't know" experiment refutes physicalism
explain how searle's Chinese room refutes strong AI
explain how spectrum inversion refutes functionalism
explain how block's Chinese nation argument refutes functionalism
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