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Terms in this set (41)
Dorsal pathway from occipital lobe to parietal lobe; spatial awareness
Ventral pathway from occipital lobe to temporal lobe; object vision/recognition
When visualization begins in the Primary Visual Cortex (V1), what is the first step?
What is V5/MT responsible for?
Detecting moving stimuli and processing motion
Inability to see fluid motion due to a lesion in the motion (V5/MT) area
What is V4 responsible for?
Inability to perceive color due to a lesion in V4 (color processing area)
Contralateral (lesion to left V4 causes color blindness in right visual field)
Different from color blindness (rods/cones involved in color blindness)
the inability to recognize a visual stimulus despite the ability to see and describe it
inability to recognize faces; may be able to recognize features but cannot identify the entire face
Which hemisphere is responsible for global processing?
Which hemisphere is responsible for local-level processing?
Lesion in right posterior parietal lobe
Person is completely inattentive to stimuli to her left, including the left side of her own body
If you ask a person with neglect syndrome to draw a person, what will the drawing look like?
Will draw both halves of the face, but will not draw left side of the body
Note: faces are processed separately from body parts
If you ask a person with neglect syndrome to drawn an object, what will the drawing look like?
Will only draw the right half of the object
Extinction (in relation to spatial neglect)
When there is competing stimuli in the right and left visual fields, patient will neglect the left visual field
But when stimuli is not competing, patient can detect stimuli in both visual fields (just not simultaneously)
Piazza del Duomo in Milan
Indicates that spatial neglect syndrome extends to an affected person's thoughts
Why do patients with left posterior parietal lobe damage not have Neglect Syndrome in their right visual field?
The right parietal lobe attends to both right and left sides of space
The left parietal lobe attends to only the right side of space
--> the right side of space is attended to by both parietal lobes
--> implies we allocate more attention to the right visual field than left
In 65% of people, left planum temporale larger than right
Proposed this asymmetry leads to dominance of language in left hemisphere
What is the role of the right hemisphere in language?
- produce automatic speech
- make simple semantic judgments
- understand simple sentences
What language abilities are impaired after right hemisphere lesions?
- Inability to produce and appreciate the stresses, reflections, and melody of speech (aprosody)
- Does not understand voice inflection and how it affects sentence meaning
- Speech is monotone
- Difficulty appreciating a story or understanding a joke
- Difficulty organizing a narrative
Hippocampal damage could be caused by a stroke in which artery?
Posterior cerebral artery
What are the effects of a right vs. left hippocampal stroke?
Right hippocampal stroke - difficulty with spatial patterns
Left hippocampal stroke - difficulty remembering words
White matter bundle that allows for communication between the two brain hemispheres
Completely severe corpus callosum in half in patients who are not reacting to epilepsy medication (suffer from generalized tonic-clonic seizures)
Prevents generalization of focal seizure
Condition in which a person is born without the corpus callosum
What do split brain patients see when shown the image of a face made of objects? (I.e. the face made of fruit)
If image is in the -
- Right visual field (left hemisphere processing)
--> patient sees the fruit
- Left visual field (right hemisphere processing)
--> patient sees the face
Alien Hand Syndrome
A rare neurological disorder that causes hand movement without the person being aware of what is happening or having control over the action.
This usually occurs after a person has had the two hemispheres of the brain surgically separated, as in split-brain surgery.
What type of behavioral changes will a person with frontal lobe damage experience?
- Disregard and lack of appreciation for social rules resulting in impulsivity, disinhibition, episodic dyscontrol (bursts of anger)
- Flat affect, blunted emotional response, decrease in drive
- Lack self-awareness of changes in behavior, emotions, thought processes
- Imitation and utilization behavior (patient acts reflexively in an inappropriate manner)
- Separate action/response from knowledge (i.e. aware of right vs. wrong but does not apply this knowledge)
railroad worker who survived a severe frontal brain injury that dramatically changed his personality and behavior
After injury to frontal lobes, some patients exhibit severe sociopathic behavior
Orbitofrontal and inferior frontal lobes implicated
Why do children act like frontal lobe damaged patients?
Frontal lobes are the last to develop (age 25+)
What cognitive changes do patients with frontal lobe damage exhibit?
- Working memory
- Executive function
- Focused/sustained attention
- Fluency and flexibility of thought in solving new problems
- Planning and adapting
- Goal-directed behavior
- Initiate, stop, modify behavior in response to changing stimuli
- Organize and plan
- Handle sequential behaviors resulting in impaired problem solving
- Inhibit responses
The tendency to repeat a response inappropriately; often a result of deficits in executive control caused by prefrontal lesions.
The greatest evolution in the human is the expansion of the _________________ lobes.
What are the two CNS mechanisms for recovery of function?
1. Regeneration of existing neural elements
2. Reorganization of function of non-damaged brain regions
Why can't axons in the CNS re-grow?
The CNS environment induces chemicals that secrete inhibitory factors which prevent axons from growing
What cells are responsible for neural recovery in the PNS?
What cells are responsible for neural recovery in the CNS?
What does regeneration of existing neural elements refer to?
Any change in the morphological organization of the nervous system that occurs in response to injury
What does reorganization of function refer to?
Already intact connections that are normally silent or masked by other connections may become functioning after destruction of neighboring structures
What does redundancy in brain function refer to?
There are alternative brain regions/circuits that can take over when the primary brain region/circuit fails
Brain regions can support many different functions
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