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cog psych exam 4
Terms in this set (74)
all the words a person understands
smallest unit of language that has meaning or grammatical function
shortest segment of speech that if changed changes the meaning of the word. refers to sound not letters
"though" has 2 phonemes th and ough
when presentation of a word results in a faster response to a related word
ex: presenting the word "fire" before the word "match" will cause a person to respond to the word "match" faster than to "dog"
Swinney et al experiment
Subjects heard the sentence "the man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches and other bugs in the corner room." On hearing "other bugs" the subjects were presented with the words "ant" "spy" "sky" and asked to perform lexical decision task.
Results of Swinney
Subjects responded faster to "ant" and "spy" rather than to "sky"
Conclusions of Swinney
Subjects had assessed both meaning of the word bug
Phonemic restoration effect
Occurs more often in real words compared to pseudo words. Influenced by the context.
phonemic restoration effect experiment
"fill in" missing phonemes based on context of sentence and portion of word presented, subjects couldn't indicate where cough occurred and none noticed that "s" was missing.
Word Frequency Effect
(the relative usage of a word), In a lexical decision task subjects respond more rapidly to high frequency words compared to low frequency words.
WF effect implications
our past experience with words influences our ability to access the meaning of words
when a word has multiple meanings
Results of the hammer experiment (situational model)
Subjects heard either "he hammered the nail into the wall" or "he hammered the nail into the floor", then showed a picture and asked to indicate as fast as possible whether the picture was the object mentioned in the sentence, the object either matched the situation or did not.
production of a specific grammatical construction by one person increases chances other person will use that construction.
the process by which we perceive individual words in a continuous flow of speech signal.
the meanings of words and sentences
rules for combining words into sentences
mental grouping of words in a sentence into phrases
sentences with more than one possible structure, more than one meaning
Garden path sentences
sentences that lead a reader down a path that seems right, but turns out to be wrong.
Syntax first approach to parsing
grammatical structure of a sentence determined parsing, and only if necessary does semantics jump in to rearrange the parsing
parser assumes a new word is part of the current phrase
Interactionist approach to parsing
semantics influence processing as one reads a sentence
a mental representation of what a text is about
changes the problems representation
sudden realization of a problems solution(aha! moment)
problems solved gradually
fixation on an objects usual function, which often leads to an inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective
the tendency to approach problems using a mindset(procedures and methods) that has worked previously
the tendency to get stuck in one way of thinking; an inability to see a problem from a new perspective
stresses that problem solving involves a search process
conditions are the beginning of the problem
conditions after each step is made toward solving a problem
goal state: solution to the problem
actions that take the problem from one state to another that are governed by rules
all possible states that could occur when solving a problem
reduce differences between initial and goal states
create intermediate states closer to goal
the ability to transfer the solution/strategy from the source problem to the target problem
what is needed to solve the problem
the specific elements that make up a problem
3 steps in analogical problem solving
1). Noticing that there is analogous relationship between source story and target problem, 2). mapping the corresponding part of the source story to the target problem, 3). applying the mapping to generate a parallel solution to the target problem.
Differences between experts and novices
1). experts possess more knowledge, 2). experts organize problems based on structural features while novices organize them based on surface features, 3). experts spend more time analyzing problems.
findings from mutilated checkerboard problem
easier to solve when information is provided that points toward the correct representation of the problem
saying aloud what one is thinking, showed solution often occurred when their was a shift in how one perceives elements of a problem
analogical problem solving
o solve a problem, one can often use a solution or strategy that worked on a similar problem
the actual problem
the problem that shares some similarities with the target problem
a technique to train people to think creatively
ideas that precede creation of finished creative products
arriving at conclusions about what is probably true based on evidence and/or observation.
reasoning from one or more general statements to reach a logical, certain conclusion.
describe the relationship between two categories using all, no, or some
has two premises and a conclusion, but the first premise has the form "if ___, then ___"
to test a rule, you must look for situations that falsifies the rule.
real world problems are easier than abstract
developed because of everyday experiences. if A is satisfied, B can be carried out.
may be responsible for the large difference in the card task
Validity vs truth
it is possible to have a valid premise that is not true.
A syllogism is considered valid if the conclusion followed logically from its two premises
the tendency to think a syllogism is valid if its conclusion is believable
the mental shortcut that estimates the likelihood of an event based on its availability in memory
a correlation that appears to exist, but either does not exist or is much weaker than assumed.
the short cut of judging the likelihood of something based on how well it matches the prototype. The representative heuristic causes us to ignore logic and statistics and base our judgments and decisions on how well a situation matches our prototype of a good professor.
probability of two events cannot be higher than the probability of the single constituents
occurs when it is assumed that two events occurring together are more probable than a single general one
clinging to ones initial concepts and beliefs despite facts discrediting them
Economic utility theory
people are rational and if they have all relevant information they will make a decision that results in the maximum expected utility
the outcomes that achieve a persons goals
tendency to selectively look for information that conforms to ones own hypothesis and overlook information that argues against it.
Integral immediate emotion
the emotion experience at the time a decision is made
the emotions that we predict that we will feel concerning an outcome
the way an issue is posed
when similar choices are presented as gains, most people prefer the sure gain over the probabilistic gain
when a problem is framed in terms of loss, we tend to choose risky things. When presented as losses, most people prefer probabilistic loss over the sure loss.
Effects of emotion on decision making
tendency to do nothing to avoid making a decision that could be interpreted as causing harm
Status quo bias
the tendency to do nothing when faces with making a decision
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Bundle: A Concise Introduction To Logic Aplia 1 Term Printed Access Card
Patrick J. Hurley
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