Astronomy quiz 3

Where did the elements heavier than hydrogen and helium come from?
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According to the nebular theory, what are asteroids and comets?They are leftover planetesimals that never accreted into planets.What is the most likely reason that there are no giant planets beyond Neptune?By the time planetesimals grew to a large enough mass to hold onto an atmosphere, the solar nebula had been blown away.Which of the following is the origin of almost all the large moons around the jovian planets?They were formed by condensation and accretion in a disk of gas around the planet.The nebular theory of the formation of the solar system successfully predicts all but one of the following. Which one does the theory not predict?the equal number of terrestrial and jovian planetsSuppose you find a rock that contains some potassium-40 (half-life of 1.3 billion years). You measure the amount and determine that there are 5 grams of potassium-40 in the rock. By measuring the amount of its decay product (argon-40) present in the rock, you realize that there must have been 40 grams of potassium-40 when the rock solidified. How old is the rock?3.9 billion yearsThe age of our solar system is approximately4.6 billion yearsWhich of the following is not evidence supporting the giant impact theory for the formation of the Moon?Scientists have found several meteorites that appear to be the remains of the object that caused the giant impact.According to our theory of solar system formation, why do we find some exceptions to the general rules and patterns of the planets?Most of the exceptions are the result of giant impacts.According to the nebular theory, how did the Kuiper belt form?It is made of planetesimals that formed beyond Neptune's orbit and never accreted to form a planet.What kind of material in the solar nebula could remain solid at temperatures as high as 1,500 K, such as existed in the inner regions of the nebula?MetalsRank the five terrestrial worlds in order of size from smallest to largest:Moon, Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth.What is differentiation in planetary geology?the process by which gravity separates materials according to densityUnder what circumstances can differentiation occur in a planet?The planet must have a molten interior.The core, mantle, and crust of a planet are defined by differences in theircompositionThe terrestrial planet cores contain mostly metal becausemetals sank to the center during a time when the interiors were molten throughout.Which internal energy source is the most important in continuing to heat the terrestrial planets today?radioactivityThe three principal sources of internal heat of terrestrial planets areaccretion, differentiation, and radioactivity.Heat escapes from a planet's surface into space by thermal radiation. Planets radiate almost entirely in the wavelength range of theinfraredWhich of the following best describes why the smaller terrestrial worlds have cooler interiors than the larger ones?They have relatively more surface area compared to their volumes.Why does Earth have the strongest magnetic field among the terrestrial worlds?It is the only one that has both a partially molten metallic core and reasonably rapid rotation.Which of the following most likely explains why Venus does not have a strong magnetic field?Its rotation is too slow.Which two properties are most important in determining the surface temperature of a planet?distance from the Sun and atmosphereWhich of the following does not have a major effect in shaping planetary surfaces?magnetismThe relatively few craters that we see within the lunar mariawere formed by impacts that occurred after those that formed most of the craters in the lunar highlands.When we see a region of a planet that is not as heavily cratered as other regions, we conclude thatthe surface in the region is younger than the surface in more heavily cratered regions.Volcanism is more likely on a planet thathas high internal temperaturesShallow-sloped shield volcanoes are made from lava thathas a medium viscosity.Steep-sided stratovolcanoes are made from lava thathas a high viscosity.Which of the following describes tectonics?the disruption of a planet's surface by internal stressesWhich of the following describes erosion?the wearing down or building up of geological features by wind, water, ice, and other phenomena of planetary weatherWhich of the following describes volcanism?the eruption of molten rock from a planet's interior to its surfaceWhich of the following describes impact cratering?the excavation of bowl-shaped depressions by asteroids or comets striking a planet's surfaceHow did the lunar maria form?Large impacts fractured the Moon's lithosphere, allowing lava to fill the impact basins.A planet is most likely to have tectonic activity if it hashigh internal temperatureThe Caloris Basin on Mercury covers a large region of the planet, but few smaller craters have formed on top of it. From this we conclude thatthe Caloris Basin formed toward the end of the solar system's period of heavy bombardmentWhy do we think Mercury has so many tremendous cliffs?They were probably formed by tectonic stresses when the entire planet shrank as its core cooled.Which of the following show evidence of ancient river beds?MarsWhat drives the motion of the tectonic plates on Earth?convection cells in the mantleOlympus Mons is ashield volcano on MarsWhich of the following correctly describes the meaning of albedo?The higher the albedo, the more light the surface reflects, and the less it absorbs.Which of the following worlds has the most substantial atmosphere?VenusWhich of the following planets has the least substantial atmosphere?MercuryWhy does Venus have such a great difference in temperature between its "no atmosphere" temperature and its actual temperature?It has a large amount of greenhouse gases in its atmosphere.What are greenhouse gases?gases that absorb infrared lightHow does the greenhouse effect work?Greenhouse gases transmit visible light, allowing it to heat the surface, but then absorb infrared light from Earth, trapping the heat near the surface.What is the exosphere?the highest layer in the atmosphereWhat is the troposphere?the lowest layer of the atmosphereThe sky is blue becausemolecules scatter blue light more effectively than red lightSunsets are red becausesunlight must pass through more atmosphere then, and the atmosphere scatters even more light at bluer wavelengths, transmitting mostly red light.Radio communication between distant places on Earth is possible because theionosphere reflects radio signals.There are no aurora on Venus because itlacks a strong magnetic fieldWhat is the difference in meaning between the terms weather and climate?Weather refers to short-term variations in conditions, and climate refers to long-term variations in conditions.The strength of the Coriolis effect depends ona planet's size and rotation rate.Why doesn't Venus have seasons like Mars and Earth do?its rotation axis is not tiltedWhere is most of the water on Mars?in its polar caps and subsurface ground iceWhy isn't Earth's atmosphere mostly hydrogen?Light gases such as hydrogen move faster than heavier gases and escape from Earth's gravitational field.Why does the burning of fossil fuels increase the greenhouse effect on Earth?Burning releases carbon dioxide into the atmosWhat are oxidation reactions?reactions that remove oxygen from the atmosphere, such as fire and rustWhat are fossil fuels?the carbon-rich remains of plants that died millions of years agoWhat is differential rotation?rotation where a body rotates faster or slower at its equator than it does at its polesWhy do jovian planets bulge around the equator, that is, have a "squashed" appearance?Their rapid rotation flings the mass near the equator outward.Which of the following does not yield information on jovian planet interiors?spectroscopy of the cloud layersWhy is Jupiter denser than Saturn?The extra mass of Jupiter compresses its interior to a greater extent than that of Saturn.Why is Neptune denser than Saturn?It has a different composition than Saturn, including a higher proportion of hydrogen compounds and rocks.How do the jovian planet interiors differ?All have cores of about the same mass, but differ in the amount of surrounding hydrogen and helium.The belts and zones of Jupiter arealternating bands of rising and falling air at different latitudes.What is Jupiter's Great Red Spot?a long-lived, high-pressure stormWhy do Uranus and Neptune have blue methane clouds but Jupiter and Saturn do not?Methane does not condense into ice in the warmer atmospheric temperatures of Jupiter and Saturn.The four large Galilean moons around Jupiter area mixture of rock and ice, with the ice fraction increasing with distance from JupiterWhy are there no impact craters on the surface of Io?Io did have impact craters but they have all been buried in lava flows.The fact that most moons always show the same face to their planet isa natural consequence of tidal forces acting on the moons.What is the most important reason why an icy moon is more likely to be geologically active than a rocky moon of the same size?Ice has a lower melting point than rock.Why do astronomers believe Triton may have been a planet that was captured by Neptune?It orbits Neptune in the opposite direction of Neptune's rotation.Why are Saturn's rings so thin?Any particle in the ring with an orbital tilt would collide with other ring particles, flattening its orbit.Planetary rings areall of the aboveWhich of the jovian planets have rings?all of the aboveWhich previously unknown planet's location was predicted from mathematical calculations of orbital motions?NeptuneWhich of the following planets cannot be seen with the naked eye?NeptuneWhich moon has the most substantial atmosphere?TitanHow big is the largest asteroid?about 1000 km in diameterWhat is the average distance between asteroids in the asteroid belt?about 1,000,000 kmWhy didn't the material in the asteroid belt form a planet?Orbital resonances with Jupiter disrupted the orbits of the asteroids and prevented them from forming a planet.What are the Trojan asteroids?They are asteroids in the 1:1 resonance with Jupiter in Jupiter's orbitWhy are most meteorites found in Antarctica?Meteorites are dark and easy to spot against the ice in AntarcticaWhat are the most common types of meteorites?stony primitive meteoritesWhat is the orientation of a comet's plasma tail?The plasma tail extends from the nucleus in the opposite direction of the Sun.What produces meteor showers?Meteor showers are caused by the passage of Earth through the debris left by a comet in its orbitComets are often described asdirty snowballsWhere do the Kuiper belt comets come from?They formed in the Kuiper beltHow is Pluto different from the other objects in the Kuiper belt?none of theseWhat is the largest dwarf planet discovered to date?ErisWhat is Comet SL9?It is a comet that was seen crashing into JupiterWhich of the following is not evidence for a large impact on Earth 65 million years ago?globally distributed meteorites with a radiometric age of 65 million yearsHow large was the object that caused the Tunguska impact?about 40m acrossHow often does an impactor large enough to cause tsunamis and widespread devastation strike Earth?about once in a million years