22 terms

RECONSTRUCTION

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Ku Klux Klan
this was a secret white supremacy society that tried (and succeeded) to terrorize blacks to prevent their governmental involvement. Extreme acts of racist violence such as torture and murder combined with threats managed to drastically decrease black voting turnout. In the mid late-1800s, the Klan aided the Democratic party's rise to power, running wild to extreme degrees. The Ku Klux Klan acts, also known as the Force Acts, hindered their progress only mildly, as the Democratic party soon became openly in favor of white supremacy as a whole. The Klan as a whole played a major role in determining elections and political power during this time period, and remained a source of fear and open aggressive violence toward blacks well into the 20th century.
Fifteenth Amendment
No state could deny the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. February 3, 1870.
Fourteenth Amendment
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868 as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. Its Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), which held that blacks could not be citizens of the United States. Its Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons (individual and corporate) of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken. This clause has been used to make most of the Bill of Rights applicable to the states, as well as to recognize substantive rights and procedural rights. Its Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction. This clause later became the basis for Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court decision which precipitated the dismantling of racial segregation in the United States. The amendment also includes a number of clauses dealing with the Confederacy and its officials.
Assassination of Lincoln
Lincoln was killed by John Wilkes Booth in an attempt to rally the remaining Confederate troops to continue fighting. He was killed while attending a performance of Our American Cousin. Lincoln was the first president to be Assassinated. Booth and his fellow conspirators Lewis Powell and George Atzerodt were also planning on assassinating Secretary of State William H. Seward, and Vice President Andrew Johnson, but fled from Washington D.C. after killing Lincoln.
Fredrick Douglass
Frederick Douglass was one of the foremost leaders of the abolitionist movement, which fought to end slavery within the United States in the decades prior to the Civil War. A brilliant speaker, Douglass was asked by the American Anti-Slavery Society to engage in a tour of lectures, and so became recognized as one of America's first great black speakers. He won world fame when his autobiography was publicized in 1845. Two years later he bagan publishing an antislavery paper called the North Star. Douglass served as an adviser to President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War and fought for the adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights and other civil liberties for blacks. Douglass provided a powerful voice for human rights during this period of American history and is still revered today for his contributions against racial injustice.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is a federal law in the United States declaring that everyone born in the U.S. and not subject to any foreign power is a citizen, without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. As citizens they could make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court, and inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property. Persons who denied these rights to former slaves were guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction faced a fine not exceeding $1,000, or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or both. The activities of organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan undermined the workings of this act and it failed to guarantee the civil rights of African Americans. This statute does not cover visitors, diplomats, and Native Americans in the United States on reservations. It was aimed at the Freedmen (freed slaves) and was a major policy during Reconstruction. It was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson then passed over his veto by Radical Republicans in Congress.
Impeachment of President Johnson
The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States, was one of the most dramatic events in the political life of the United States during Reconstruction, and the first impeachment in history of a sitting United States president.The Impeachment was the consummation of a lengthy political battle, between the moderate Johnson and the "Radical Republican" movement that dominated Congress, for control of Reconstruction policies after the American Civil War. Johnson was impeached on February 24, 1868 in the U.S. House of Representatives on eleven articles of impeachment detailing his "high crimes and misdemeanors"in accordance with Article Two of the United States Constitution. The House's primary charge against Johnson was with violation of the Tenure of Office Act, passed by Congress the previous year. Specifically, he had removed Edwin M. Stanton, the Secretary of War (whom the Tenure of Office Act was largely designed to protect), from office and replaced him with Adjutant General Lorenzo Thomas.
The House agreed to the articles of impeachment on March 2, 1868. The trial began three days later in the Senate, with Supreme Court Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase presiding. Trial concluded on May 16 with Johnson's acquittal, the final count falling one vote shy of the required tally for conviction.
Election of 1868
First election during reconstruction. Democrat Horatio Seymour Vs Republican Ulysess S. Grant. Grant was popular because of his efforts as a Union general. Grant won by a large margin in the electoral college, but Seymour was close behind in popular vote despite Grants advantage of being very popular in the north and popular with freed slaves in the south.
Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871
The Enforcement Acts in the United States from 1870 to 1871 were meant to protect rights of all blacks following ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution as part of Reconstruction. One protected black votes, another provided federal supervision of southern elections, and another strengthened sanctions against those who attacked blacks or prevented them from voting, allowing the President to use troops to enforce the law and suspend habeas corpus. It was also known as the Ku Klux Klan Act.
Panic of 1873
In 1873, the world entered a recession. This increased Democratic opposition to the Republicans, as their plan to support private businesses failed. The recession refueled the ongoing debate about whether to use greenbacks to inflate the economy. Grant was forced to do this. Later, the Specie Resumption Act returned currency to coin. This controversy gave birth to the Greenback Party.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
U.S. federal law proposed by Republican Senator Charles Sumner and Republican congressman Benjamin F. Butler. Passed in February 1875. The Act guaranteed that everyone regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude was entitled to the same treatment in "public accommodations"
Ex. Inns, public conveyances on land and water theaters, and other public places.
In 1883 the U.S. supreme court declared it unconstitutional.
Sharecropping
Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (e.g., 50% of the crop). This should not be confused with a crop fixed rent contract, in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a fixed amount of crop per unit of land (e.g., 1 T/ha). Sharecropping came into wide use in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era (1865-1877). The South had been devastated by war; planters had ample land but little money for wages or taxes. At the same time most of the former slaves had labor but no money and no land; they rejected the kind of gang labor that typified slavery. The solution was the sharecropping system focused on cotton, which was the only crop that could generate cash for the croppers, landowners, merchants and the tax collector. Poor white farmers, who previously had done little cotton farming, needed cash as well and became sharecroppers.
Freedman's Bureau
As the Civil War ended in 1865, Congress created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Land, popularly known as the Freedman's Bureau, to help former slaves make the transition to freedom. Throughout the South, the Freedman's Bureau established schools and hospitals, helped negotiate labor contracts, leased or sold confiscated lands to the freedmen, and generally tried to protect them from former masters. The unpopularity of the Freedman's Bureau among white Southerners caused President Andrew Johnson to veto an 1866 bill to extend the life of the bureau. The veto outraged both moderate and radical Republicans in Congress and united them against the President. Congress passed the second Freedmen's Bureau Act over the President's veto and started down the collision course that would result in Johnson's impeachment in 1868.
Lincoln's 10% Plan for Reconstruction
Two years before the end of the Civil War, Lincoln announced his 10 % reconstruction plan. It allowed a state to enter back into the Union if 10% of its population swore an oath of loyalty. They were allowed to setup a Unionist government, and had to abolish slavery. he wanted the act to end the war quickly.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
First reconstruction act passed by congress. The bill reduced the secessionist states to little more than conquered territory, dividing them (the south) into 5 military districts, each governed by a Union general. Also had to get rid of black codes, and ratify the 14th amendment (equal rights to all those who are born or naturalized in the U.S.) This act also banned confederate leaders from voting, and any who didn't pledge their allegiance to the U.S.
End of Reconstruction
Reconstruction officially ended as all federal troops were withdrawn from the South. White rule was restored, and black people were over time deprived of many civil and political rights and their economic position remained depressed. The radicals' hopes for a basic reordering of the social and economic structure of the South, beyond the abolition of slavery, died. The results, instead, were the one-party "solid South" and increased racial bitterness.
Congressional elections of 1866
Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1866 to elect Representatives to the 40th United States Congress.The elections occurred just one year after the American Civil War ended at Appomattox, in which the Union defeated the Confederacy. The 1866 elections were a decisive event in the early Reconstruction era, in which President Andrew Johnson faced off against the Radical Republicans in a bitter dispute over whether Reconstruction should be lenient or harsh toward the vanquished South.Most of the congressmen from the former Confederate states were either prevented from leaving the state or were arrested on the way to the capital. A Congress consisting of mostly Radical Republicans sat early in the Capitol and aside from the delegation from Tennessee who were allowed in, the few Southern Congressmen who arrived were not seated.
Carpetbaggers
Derogatory name for northerners who came to the south to participate in reconstruction government. Some white southerners responded with race violence such as the KKK.
Thaddeus Stephens
Thaddeus Stephens, a leader of the radical republicans, came up with a reconstruction plan to outline what must occur before the south could be fully accepted back into the union. As well as aid in the government, he came up with plans to help the homeless freedmen in need, and guidelines to enable unity and respect for the states under the constitution.
Black Codes
Restrictions by southern states on former slaves. Designed to replicate the conditions of slaver in the post-Civil war south. Led to radical republican opposition.
Congressional Reconstruction vs. Radical Reconstruction
Congress preferred a more harsh form of reconstruction from Lincoln. They believed that the ex-Confederate states left the Union, and therefore it was Congress' job to decide when and how they should be readmitted. Lincoln thought the Confederacy was a group of individuals, so he could dictate to them what to do. Most of Congress did not want old Confederates serving with them in government. They wanted to pass the Wade-Davis Bill, which forced 50% of the pop. of a future state to take the loyalty oath. It forced emancipation, and only those who never supported the Confederacy would get to vote for who was on their constitutional convention. Lincoln vetoed the bill. There was a small, radical group of congressmen who wanted black suffrage to be a requirement for states to be readmitted.
Jim Crow Laws
State and local laws in the U.S. Enacted between 1876 and 1965. Mandated racial segregartion in all public facilities with a "separate but equal" status for blacks. This led to inferior treatment of whites.
Ex. segregation of public schools, public places, transportation, restrooms, restaurants, and separate drinking fountains for whites and blacks.
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