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cardo vocabulary


abnormal cardiac rhythm, time span between each beat is irregular

end systolic volume

is the volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of ventricular systole (amount of blood left in heart)

atrial systole

contraction of the atria

systolic blood pressure

is the pressure in the arteries during ventricular contraction

stroke volume

volume of blood pumped by a ventricle per beat/contraction
stroke volume determine by
1. preload
2. contractility
3. afterload

SA node

pacemaker because it determines heart rate

venous return

is the amount of blood returning to the heart via vena cavae
assistance from skeletal muscle, thoracic pump-breathing brings blood to the heart & valves

ventricular diastole

is relaxation of the ventricles

conduction system path

SA node---->AV node---->AV bundle---->bundle branches--->Purkinje fibers


detect blood pressure in the aortic sinus and carotid sinus
help monitor and regulate blood pressure

chordae tendineae

function to prevent AV valves from opening under pressure

hydrostatic pressure

physical force exerted against a surface by a liquid
aka blood pressure
forces fluid out of the capillaries by filtration

hepatic portal vein

drains the organs of the digestive tract

precapillary sphincters function

in the control of the flow of blood into a capillary

osmotic pressure due to

albumin (plasma proteins)

capacitance vessels


diastolic blood pressure

is the pressure in the arteries as the ventricles relax

p wave

SA node firing and wave of depolarization in the atria


ventricular depolarization and masks the atrial repolarization

T wave

ventricular repolarization

sympathetic nervous system increases

heart rate and contractility

peripheral resistance

aka afterload
resistance to blood flow due to diameter or blood vessels

blood pressure

is determined by the cardiac output and peripheral resistance
force and the amount of blood pumped

cardiac output

volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle each minute
= heart rate X stroke volume

end diastolic volume

(EDV) the volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of ventricular diastole (relaxation of ventricle)


is the force of contraction of the heart


heart initiates its own heart rate

ectopic heart beat

is a beat that begins outside the SA node


amount of blood in ventricles prior to contraction (volume)
-determined by EDV & Venous return
- if increase preload then increase force of contraction


amount of resistance the ventricles must contract against


slow heart rate, less than 60


fast heart rate, over 100


you don't have meaningful rate


no contraction

PR interval

period of time the wave of depolarization is delayed in the AV node while the atria contract

ST segment

period of time between the depolarization of the ventricles and repolarization of ventricles. this is the time the ventricles are contracting

conduction system

was of depolarization

ducuts venosus

blood bypasses liver

ductus arteriosus

blood bypasses lungs by going from pulmonary trunk into aorta

foramen ovale

right atrium to left atrium

cardiac cycle

1. atrial systole
2. isovolumeteric ventricular contraction
3. ejection
4. isovolumetric ventricular relaxation
5. passive ventricular filling

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