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65 terms

Chapter 10

The Muscular System
STUDY
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False
A pair of tweezers is a good example of a second-class lever.
False
Both first- and second-class levers operate at a mechanical disadvantage.
False
Although all skeletal muscles have different shapes, the fascicle arrangement of each muscle is exactly the same.
True
Muscles are only able to pull, they never push.
False
The anconeus muscle flexes the knee and stabilizes the patella.
True
Movements of the thigh are accomplished by muscles anchored to the pelvic girdle.
True
The insertion of the biceps brachii is on the radius.
False
The chewing muscle covering the ramus of the mandible is the buccinator.
False
A prime mover of the arm that acts in adduction would be the deltoid.
True
The soleus is a synergist of the gastrocnemius used in plantar flexion.
False
Muscles that help to maintain posture are often called synergists.
True
In order to propel food down to the esophagus, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles would be used.
False
Plantar flexion at the ankle joint is accomplished by the tibialis anterior muscle.
True
The arrangement of a muscleʹs fascicles determines its range of motion and power.
True
Muscle power does not depend on the direction of the fascicles.
True
The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) is the largest, strongest tendon in the body.
True
The epicranius or occipitofrontalis has two bellies, the frontal and occipital.
True
Electromyography is the recording and interpretation of graphic records of the electrical activity of contracting muscles.
False
Severing of the patellar tendon would inactivate the hamstring group.
True
The broadest muscle of the back is the latissimus dorsi.
True
Muscle spasms of the back would often include the erector spinae.
False
Muscles connecting to the hyoid bone are instrumental in speech.
a first-class lever
Scissors demonstrate which type of lever?
fibularis tertius
What muscle is responsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking?
the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum
What is the major factor controlling the manner in which levers work?
the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle
With regard to muscle fiber arrangement in a pennate muscle ________.
the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
What primarily determines the power of a muscle?
an agonist
A muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement is called ________.
the muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively
When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscleʹs name, you can assume that ________.
There are over 600 muscles in the body.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the total number of skeletal muscles in the human body?
the muscle elevates and/or adducts a region
The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. When the term levator is part of the descriptive term for a muscleʹs action, this means that ________.
are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity
The suprahyoid muscles ________.
to stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward location of the humerus and to assist in abduction
The supraspinatus is named for its location on the posterior aspect of the scapula above the spine. What is its action?
extends and abducts the wrist and is short
The extensor carpi radialis brevis ________.
circular muscles
The muscles that are found at openings of the body are collectively called ________.
the frontal belly of the epicranius
To produce horizontal wrinkles in the forehead, which of the following muscles is involved?
genioglossus
A cute, little curly haired child is sitting behind you in church. You turn around for a moment and she sticks her tongue out at you. Which tongue muscle did she use?
the scalenes
Which group of muscles flexes and rotates the neck?
the sartorius
Which of the following muscles is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position?
the gastrocnemius
Which of the following muscles inserts by the calcaneal tendon?
load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum
If a lever operates at a mechanical disadvantage, it means that the ________.
coccygeus
Which of the following does not compress the abdomen?
synergist
A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a(n) ________.
infraspinatus
A muscle located on the dorsal side of the body is the ________.
gracilis
Which of the following is not a member of the hamstrings?
buccinator
A nursing infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling called the ________.
sternocleidomastoid
Spasms of this straplike muscle often result in wryneck or torticollis.
During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.
Which generalization concerning movement by skeletal muscles is not true?
the type of muscle fibers
Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles?
triceps brachii acts as antagonist
In flexing the forearm at the elbow, the ________.
closes, purses, and protrudes the lips
Orbicularis oris ________.
muscles look like a feather
In a pennate muscle pattern ________.
unipennate
The extensor digitorum longus has which type of fascicle arrangement?
the brachioradialis
Tennis players often complain about pain in the arm (forearm) that swings the racquet. What muscle is usually strained under these conditions?
internal intercostals and diaphragm.
To exhale forcibly, one would contract the:
iliopsoas and rectus femoris
Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the thigh?
in the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location
First-class levers ________.
All act on the tongue.
What do geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid have in common?
medial compartment of the thigh
Adductor magnus, adductor longus, and adductor brevis are parts of a large muscle mass of the ________.
deltoid
Which of the following muscles is involved in abduction?
adductor magnus
Which of the following muscles is a flexor of the thigh?
tibialis anterior
Which of the following muscles is involved in inversion at the ankle joint?
the vastus lateralis
Which of the following muscles serves as a common intramuscular injection site, particularly in infants?
hamstring muscles
Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the knee?
popliteus
Which of the following muscles does not act in plantar flexion?