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Terms in this set (40)
a study of related languages for the light which the knowledge of each one of them throws on the phenomena of all the others
one that is no longer in use
one that has the characteristics of a much earlier period and is on the way out of use. Any word is archaic if it is too old to be generally used. To determine whether a word is archaic or obsolete, consult an up-to-date dictionary.
expressions used in ordinary conversation. They admit words, phrases, forms, and constructions that would be out of place in formal oral or written speech. Their use should be restricted to informal communications.
a word or phrase that is not in good use. It may be a newly coined word, a slang expression, a vulgarism, a provincialism, or any illiterate or unauthorized expression, such as ain't, irregardless, attackted, nowheres, unbeknownst, complected.
a term used to describe a blunder in grammar or a construction not sanctioned by good usage. Any word or combination of words deviating from the idiom of the language or from the rules of syntax may be called a solecism, such as he don't or between you and I.
Idioms and idiomatic phrases
terms used by grammarians to explain or classify the unusual, the illogical, or the peculiar expressions in a language. Idiomatic expressions frequently defy grammatical analysis and are, therefore, not easily translated into other words and phrases in the same language, or into other languages word for word, without losing some of their highly specialized meaning. Some idioms are had better and How do you do?
a term employed by linguists to classify speech habits or language peculiarities, to show what is or has been practiced at a given time by a stated group of users of a language.
the name of a person, place, or thing
word that takes the place of a noun
word that the pronoun takes the place of
a word describing a noun or a pronoun and answering which one, what kind, how many, or whose.
word describing a verb, an adjective, or another adverb, and answering how, when, where, how much, why, or to what extent
a word that shows action, being, or state of being
a word "placed before" to show relation between words; to show the relationship between noun (or pronoun) and the rest of the sentence
a word that yokes or connects elements of a sentence
sentence structure; the orderly arrangement, relation, agreement of parts of the sentence in accordance with usage or custom; the relation of words to other words in phrases, clauses, and sentences
the study of the shape of words and the meanings and relationships that may result from inflection; the study of inflections.
the change, or modification, in the form of a word to indicate a change in its meaning.
the inflection of a verb
the inflection of an adjective or an adverb
the inflection of a noun or a pronoun
Function, Form, or Empty Words, or Morphemes
terms for words and phrases that have lost their original or individual meaning and serve only to show the relationship or the structure of full words. Some function words are more, most, and of.
words that have independent meanings of their own
states a fact or makes an assertion and closes with a period
asks for information; always ends with a question mark. The question may be introduced by the verb or by an interrogative pronoun, an interrogative adjective, or an interrogative adverb; or it may have the form of a declarative sentence, especially if an affirmative answer is expected or inferred. This kind of interrogative sentence may end with a tag, such as You will be on time, won't you?
issues a command, a request, or an imprecation. It closes with a period. the sentence is addressed to some person or some group of persons. THe subject is usually implied
expresses strong emotion: surprise, relief, grief, fear, hate, delight, and so forth. It ends with an exclamation mark. It is often expressed in the form of an indirect (and sometimes a direct) question
group of related words containing a subject and a predicate (verb)
Main or Independent Clause
a group of related words containing a subject and a predicate that expresses a complete thought and that can stand by itself.
Subordinate or Dependent Clause
a group of related words containing a subject and a predicate that does not express a complete thought and that cannot stand by itself.
a group of related words without a subject or a predicate, acting as a single part of speech.
a word or a group of words denoting that of which something is said
a word or a group of words denoting that which is said of the subject
the study of words and their funciton
the study of pronunciation
the study of the meanings of words
a systematic study of the changes occurring in a language or a group of languages as they vary from generation to generation, from century to century.
historical English grammer
a study of the nature, the origin, and the growth of the English language from its earliest written form to the present time. It describes the characteristics of Old English, Middle English, and Modern English, and analyzes the variations and changes that occur in these three periods.
a study of established facts and usages as they exist at a given time in a given language.