220 terms



Terms in this set (...)

physical components of a computer system, cannot realistically be used without software
set of machine-readable instructions that directs a computer's processor to perform specific operations, cannot realistically be used without hardware
computer system
hardware that operates under the control of a software
central processing unit
CPU, carries out the instructions of a computer program, primary component that executes computer's functions
every computer system
CPU is present in...
system software
computing device which requests for service is known as client, computing devices include desktop, laptop, smartphone, tablet, etc.
computing device which offers or provides service, usually big computers
most powerful computers, normally used by governments and large organizations to handle large datasets
mainframe computer
fast performing computers that are highly reliable, handling millions of transactions per day in a highly secured environment, used by large banking institutions to run their daily financial transactions
midrange computers
have less processing power than mainframes, thus, many are required to perform (server farm)
fat client
more processing power, more main memory, more data storage (computer)
thin client
limited processing power, less main memory, less storage, network dependent (phone)
main memory/random access memory
RAM, stores instructions and data that is needed by the CPU now, present in every computer system
secondary storage
required to permanently store programs and data that is passed to Main Memory when CPU requires them, non-volatile
input device
physical parts of a computer that allow data to be entered into the computer system
output device
hardware that conveys information to a user or another computer
operating system
main system control program required in all computers, provides interface between any other software and hardware
graphical user interface
interface through which a user interacts with electronic devices such as computers and other appliances through icons, menus, and other visual indicator to display information
programming language system examples
python, C++, R
security system examples
symantec, mcafee
database management system examples
oracle, ms access, ibm db2
application software
set of one or more programs designed to carry out operations for a specific application
enterprise resource planning systems
ERP systems, provide communication among functional areas in a business, like Sales, Human Resources
transaction processing systems
TPS systems, support the "real time" monitoring, collection, storage, and processing of data from the organization's day to day operations
using less things to produce more, product of software complexity increasing
open-source software
software made available in source-code form at no cost to developers and users, often developed in a collaborative and public manner
augmented reality
type of interactive, reality-based display environment that takes the capabilities of computer generated display, sound, text and effects to enhance the user's real-world experience
virtual reality
computer-generated environments or realities that are designed to simulate a person's physical presence in a specific environment that is designed to feel real, complete immersion
more expensive
as hardware gets less expensive, software gets..
proprietary software
software developed and owned by one private entity
inter-organizational system
automated information systems shared by more than one organization and allowing information flow across organizational boundaries, improving business processes
computer network
two or more computing devices connected to one another to establish communication and share resources
transmission capacity of a network (rate of data transfer)
telecommunications signals of greater bandwidth, based on FCC definition
personal area network, always needs a router
local area network, secured within one building, high speed and low cost
metropolitan area network, designed for college campus
wide area network, contain routers
type of WAN, huge network of networks, collection of infinite number of connected computer devices that are spread across the World, no central agency manages nor owns it
internet protocol
set of rules responsible for disassembling, delivering, and reassembling packets over the internet
internet service provider
ISP, company that provides Internet connections for a fee
IP address
unique address to each computer on the Internet that distinguishes it from all other computers
domain name system
DNS, how domain names are translated into IP addresses, and DNS also controls email delivery
top-level domain
TLD, .com, .edu, .gov, .org, .it
world wide web
system of universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information
program that gives users a graphical way to access web sites, universal way to access the web
uniform resource locator
URL, indicates the location of a resource as well as the protocol used to access it
network transmission media
any medium that carries information from source to destination
fiber optic cable
carries light signal at a much greater speed and distance than other cable technologies, more secured
high bandwidth, inexpensive, requires line of sight, undirectional
radio wave
high bandwidth, inexpensive, signal penetrates walls, omnidirectional
infrared wave
low bandwidth, inexpensive, requires line of sight, unidirectional, very short range
high bandwidth, expensive, requires line of sight, unidirectional, very long range
global positioning system
GPS, network of satellites that protects information to GPS receivers on the ground, enabling users to determine location, speed, direction, and time
geographic information system
GIS, software program that enables users to store and manipulate large amounts of data from GPS and other sources
short-range wireless nerwork
bluetooth, near-field communication
medium-range wireless network
wireless fidelity, MiFi (wireless router that acts as mobile wifi hotspot)
wide-area wireless network
connects users to each other and to the Internet over geographically dispersed distances
advantages of wireless devices
small enough to easily carry or wear, sufficient computing power to perform productive tasks, can communicate wirelessly with the Internet and other devices
something that changes its location over time, mostly the user or device connecting to the wireless network
mobile computing
real-time, wireless connection between a mobile device and other computing environments, such as internet or an intranet
near-field communications
has the smallest range of any short-range wireless networks, and is designed to be embedded in mobile devices such as cell phones and credit cards
two-way communication
involves two devices that can both read and write to each other
one-way communication
powered device reads and writes to an NFC chip
small, portable wireless device that provides users with a permanent WiFi hotspot wherever they go
rogue access point
unauthorized access point to a wireless network
evil twin attack
user connects to a malicious access point where attacker could intercept confidential information
war driving
locating WLANs while driving around a city or elsewhere
when unauthorized users try to access data packets traveling on a network
radio frequency jamming
person or a device intentionally or unintentionally interferes with your wireless network transmissions
users can initiate a real-time contact with other systems from anywhere using a mobile device
broad reach
users with a mobile device can be reached instantly
workers are able to work anywhere anytime using the internet connectivity
voice over IP
digitizes analog voice signals, sections them into packets, and sends them over the Internet
allows users to browse and search data sources, in all topic areas
search engine
computer program that searches for specific information by keywords and then reports the results
web-based, personalized gateway to information and knowledge that provides relevant information from different IT systems and the Internet using advanced search and indexing techniques
commercial portal
most popular type of portal on the internet and is intended for broad and diverse audiences
business applications of networks
resource sharing, communication and collaboration, discovery, information sharing, commerce
cloud computing
type of computing that delivers on-demand access for multiple customers to a shared pool of computing resources
public cloud
shared, easily accessible, multi-customer, multi-tenant IT infrastructures
private clouds
accessible only by a single group sharing the same purpose and requirements, such as all the business units within a single organization
hybrid clouds
composed of public and private clouds that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models
vertical clouds
cloud infrastructure and applications for different businesses
offer remotely accessible servers, networks, and storage capacity
customers rent servers, operating systems, storage, a database, software development technologies, and network capacity over the internet
provide software that is specific to customers' requirements
benefits of cloud software
reduce costs, make individuals more productive, facilitating collaboration, expand scope of business operations faster
legacy IT systems
not easily transferable to the cloud
cloud resources may not be as reliable as a well-managed, on-premise IT infrastructure
easy data access might mean less control, the right to be left alone and to be free of unreasonable personal intrusions
cloud security could widely differ from those of traditional IT architectures
regulatory and legal environment
data access and transport could raise compliance issues
mixed results about whether or not cloud computing is cost effective
dimensions of data quality
accurate, timely, complete, relevant, accessible, consistent
organize collection of interrelated information, allowing storage and retrieval of the data
database management system
software to store, access, and administer databases, provides mechanisms to query the data, provides security and access controls
parts of the relational database model
primary key
entity (table)
person, place, thing, or event
instance of an entity (record)
refers to each row in a relational table, which is a specific, unique representation of the entity
attribute (field)
it represents a characteristic of the entity, column of data containing a logical grouping of characters into a word, a small group of words
primary key
field in a database that uniquely identify each record so that it can be retrieved, updated, and sorted
data management challenges
multiple source of data, data is scattered, data quality, data security, government regulation, data increases over time
business intelligence
category of applications, technologies, and processes for gathering, storing, analyzing, and visualizing data
most popular business intelligence tool
data warehouse
repository of historical data that are organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization
data mart
low-cost, scaled-down version of a data warehouse designed for end-user needs in a strategic business unit or individual department
data mining
process of searching for valuable business information in a large database, data warehouse, or data mart
predict trends and behaviors, identifying previously unknown patterns
operations that data mining can perform
big data
very large data sets, do not fit neatly into traditional, structured, relational databases, volume, velocity, variety
the amount of data
the pace at which different sources generate the data every day
type of data they are generating is different
predictive analytics
employs mathematical and statistical algorithms, neural networks, artificial intelligence, and other advanced modeling tools
artificial intelligence
building intelligent machines, agents or systems which simulate intelligent living beings, can solve problems and evolve by themselves
machine learning, natural language processing, robotics, vision
subfields on artificial intelligence
machine learning
provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed
optical character recognition
printed, handwritten characters are recognized automatically based on previous examples
face recognition
identify faces in images
fraud detection
identify credit card transactions that may be fraudulent
customer segmentation
identify which customers may respond positively to a particular promotion
topic identification
categorize news articles as to whether they are about politics, sports, entertainment, and so on
natural language processing
branch of artificial intelligence that helps computers understand, interpret and manipulate human language, like speech and text
system of records for a business
distributed digital ledger
ledger keeps records of transaction, value, and ownership of assets, copies of recording (ledger) are kept in different databases/nodes
everyone must validate and approve the new transaction/block
uses cryptography to process digital transactions or verifiable digital signature
once a transaction is recorded into a block, a block can't be changed nor deleted
blocks must show connection to prior block, keeping a trail
converts data into a format that is unreadable for an unauthorized user, allowing it to be transmitted without unauthorized entities decoding it back into a readable format
digital currency that uses cryptography for security measures
methodology, identity of members is known, handles many types of assets
blockchain application, anonymous, cryptocurrency
information privacy
the right to determine when, and to what extent, information about you can be gathered and/or communicated to others
electronic surveillance
using technology to monitor individuals as they go about their daily routines
privacy concerns
involve collecting, storing, and disseminating information about individuals
accuracy concerns
involve the authenticity, fidelity and accuracy of information that is collected and processed
property concerns
involve the ownership and value of information
accessibility concerns
revolve around who should have access to information and whether a fee should be paid for this access
security concerns
involve security measurements
information security
protecting organization's information resources from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction
any danger to which a system may be exposed
possibility that the system will suffer harm by a threat
involves the unauthorized viewing, access or retrieval of data
unintentional threats
human error, social engineering
social engineering
attacker uses social skills to trick a legitimate employee into providing confidential company information such as passwords
espionage or trespass
individual attempts to gain illegal access to organizational information, competitive intelligence, industrial espionage
information extortion
attacker demands payment for not stealing the information, for returning stolen information, or for not to disclose the information stolen from a company
theft of equipment or information
smaller equipment are easier to steal, larger storage means more information lost
dumpster diving
rummaging through thrash to find discarded information
identity theft
deliberate assumption of another person's identity to access financial information through phishing, stealing from databases, social engineering
impersonating a trusted organization in an electronic communication
sabotage or vandalism
occurs when an intruder maliciously alters a Web page by inserting or substituting provocative and frequently offending data
compromises to intellectual property
intellectual property created by individuals or corporations
SCADA attacks
SCADA systems control chemical, physical, or transport processes
cyberterrorism and cyberwarfare
attack via the internet to use a target's computer systems to cause physical, real-worm harm
remote attack needing user action
virus, worm, phishing attack, spear phishing attack
attach to a host computer
can spread by itself
remote attack without user action
denial of service, distributed attack
denial-of-service attack
bombarding and crashing a target computer with bogus requests
distributed DoS attack
used to hacked computers to perform DoS attack
attacks by programmers
trojan horse, back door or trap door, logic bomb
trojan horse
disguised as an innocent program
back door or trap door
allows unauthorized access to the program or system, bypassing security measures
logic bomb
dormant until activated at a certain date and time
alien software
programs installed on a computer without user's consent or knowledge, use up valuable system resources and may report user activities back to the creator, not designed to disrupt system functioning nor to steal data from files
small files stored on a computer containing information about visited websites
display pop-up advertisements on computer screens
collects personal information about users without their consent
create a launchpad for sending out spam emails
risk management
identify, control, and minimize the impact of threats
risk mitigation
implement controls and develop recovery plan
3 strategies of risk management
risk acceptance, risk limitation, risk transference
risk acceptance
accept the potential risk, continue operating with no controls, and absorb any damages that occur
risk limitation
limit the risk by implementing controls that minimize the impact of threat
risk transference
transfer the risk by using other means to compensate for the loss, such as purchasing insurance
information security controls
physical controls, access controls, communication controls, business continuity planning
physical controls
prevent unauthorized individuals from gaining access to a company's facilities
access controls
restrict unauthorized individuals from using information resources and involve two major functions: authentication and authorization
communication controls
secure the movement of data across networks and consist of firewalls, anti-malware systems, whitelisting and blacklisting, encryption, virtual private networks, secure socket layer, employee monitoring systems
business continuity
chain of events linking planning to protection and to recovery
business continuity plan
purpose is to provide guidance to people who keep the business operating after a disaster occurs
confirms the identity of the person requiring access
determines which actions, rights, or privileges the person has, based on his or her verified identity
proof of identity, permission to do certain activities
authentication is .., authorization is..
enforces access-control policy to prevent certain information from moving between untrusted and private networks
allows acceptable software to run
allows everything to run unless it is on the list
anti-malware systems
identify and eliminate malicious software
converting an original message into a form that can only be read by intended reciever
virtual private networking
use logins and encryption to establish secured, private connection on a public network
secure socket layer
an encryption standard for secure transactions such as credit card purchases and online banking
employee monitoring systems
monitor employees' computers, e-mail, and internet activities
step-by-step problem-solving process
programming language
computer language engineered to create a standard form of commands, artificial formalism in which algorithms can be expressed
process of problem solving
code is properly and consistently formatted and uses clear, meaningful names for functions and variables
program documentation
comprehensive information on the capabilities, design details, features, and limitations of a systems or application software
gartner hype cycle
separate hype from the real drivers of a technology's commercial promise, helps getting educated on an emerging technology within the context of the industry and individual appetite for risk
gap between visionary early adopters and the pragmatic majority
gartner magic quadrant
widely used by c-level, management and IT personnel, all over the World
execute well against their current vision and are well positioned for tomorrow
execute well today or may dominate a large segment, but do not demonstrate an understanding of market direction
understand where the market is going or have a vision for changing market rules, but do not yet execute well
niche player
focus successfully on a small segment, or an unfocused and do not out-innovate or outperform others
emerging technologies
supercomputers, intelligent cars, artificial intelligence, 3d printing
technical viability
how doable
business viability
how will it generate revenue
new ideas or improved idea
user's data
collection, marketability, privacy
user interface design
appealing, simple but with substance
ease of use
usability testing
testing the ease of use
engagement factor
engaging, motivating, challenging
alpha testers
simulated or actual operational testing by potential users/customers or an independent test team at developing site
beta testers
testing stage that follows the internal alpha test cycle