POLI 109 Final Exam, VCU POLI 109 Comparative Politics Paarlberg Final - Key Terms
Terms in this set (59)
"The ways that individuals categorize themselves and others, and how they understand the power relationships of domination and oppression that exist between groups. "
"Categorization of humans into large populations supposedly based on hereditable physical characteristics such as skin color, facial features and hair texture."
"A group of people who share an understanding of a common heritage based on religion, language, territory, or family ties."
"An economic class that emerged during the Industrial Revolution, made up of wealthy capitalists. "
"An economic class that emerged during the Industrial Revolution, made up of wage laborers who worked in factories. "
Individuals' self-awareness of the political implications of being a member of a particular economic class.
"A deep and lasting salient dimension of political conflict and competition within a given society, such as religion, ethnicity, ideology, or other forms of identity."
"An approach to understanding identity that assumes that identities are something people are born with or that emerge through deep psychological processes in early childhood, given one's family and community context. "
"An approach to understanding identity that assumes that political identities are malleable, even if they often appear to be primordial, and suggests that we think of identity as an evolving political process rather than as a fixed set of identity categories. "
"A connection to others formed by blood, marriage, or other family relations."
"a sixteenth-century division within Christianity that resulted in the formation of various Protestant Christian religious sects, which split off from the Catholic Church. "
a diversity of forms of worship.
Second Vatican Council
1965 meeting of Catholic authorities from around the world that reformulated long-standing Catholic Church doctrines.
"an ethnic group defined by language and geographic location, in countries in North Africa and the Middle East."
"the body of Islamic religious law, which governs individuals' public and private lives."
civil law code
a set of laws that covers issues pertaining to private property rights and family law.
"the creation of two separate sovereign states out of a territory that initially comprised only one state, in order to separate antagonistic groups. "
"hypothesizes that any country whose economic growth relies on one valuable natural resource is unlikely to result in an equitable distribution of wealth, which in turn creates problematic political consequences. "
a gradual decline in the societal importance of religion. In
value emphasis on personal survival
"people who value personal survival emphasize the importance of the nuclear family, childrearing, and hard work; they worry a great deal about having enough money; and they wish for greater government involvement in the economy."
value emphasis on personal well-being
"people who focus on personal well-being place higher value on individual freedom, leisure time, and being happy; they view work as a source of personal satisfaction; and they value freedom of expression and the ability to participate in politics"
"people who value traditional forms of political authority such as kings, tribal chiefs, and religious leaders tend to be more religious and nationalistic, express respect for hierarchical authority relations, and express a belief in a clear difference between good and evil"
"people who value secular-rational political authorities such as independent judges, nonpartisan bureaucrats, or elected officials tend to not be religious; they are skeptical of authority figures in general and are reluctant to affirm a simple difference between good and evil."
"to reap the benefits that collective action provides after other people have put in the time, energy, or money to generate collective mobilization."
goods that only one person or a few people can consume.
"goods that everyone can consume, whether they helped produce them or not."
"organized, sustained, and collective efforts that make claims on behalf of members of a group; challenge the power of government authorities or other groups in civil society; contest the legitimacy of established ideas or practices; or advance new ideas or practices."
political opportunity structure
"the way a country's political system shapes, promotes, checks, or absorbs the challenges it confronts from organized civil society. "
"in Latin America, a person of mixed white and native ancestry."
organized groups of citizens who seek to ensure that the state enacts particular policies.
a pattern of interest group mobilization in which societal interests organize freely in an unregulated fashion.
pattern of interest group mobilization in which the state plays an active role in organizing groups and mediating between them.
a group of people who have organized to attain and hold political power.
party in public office
"made up of (1) party members whom voters elected to the executive or legislative branches of government or (2) party members appointed to high-level bureaucratic posts, for example, in the cabinet. "
party in the electorate
"a party's supporters in the electorate—its "card-carrying" members and its local or regional-level party organizations, but not its national-level organization. "
"a party's central office or national headquarters, and the party's professional staff. "
a political party dominated by leaders who hold office in government rather than the party in the electorate or the party organization.
"a political party in which the party in the electorate and the party organization are relatively important, playing an active role in deciding the party's policy commitments or ideological profile. "
the typical pattern of political competition and cooperation between parties within a state.
a government comprising several parties that hold at least one cabinet ministry. These are frequent in multiparty systems.
"a concept used to distinguish the social and cultural characteristics associated with femininity and masculinity from the biological features associated with sex, such as male or female reproductive organs."
gender as a category
a form of socially constructed political identity that considers variation in the social meaning of masculinity and femininity around the world.
gender as a political process
"individual involvement in political institutions to either preserve or change gender relations, or ways that existing social context and political institutions shape one's relative ability to preserve and/or change gender relations."
traditional gender gap
a situation in a country in which women are more likely than men to be conservative and vote for conservative political parties.
modern gender gap
a situation in a country in which women are more likely than men to be more liberal and vote for more liberal parties.
gender quota laws
rules that require that a certain proportion of candidacies or legislative seats be reserved for women.
family law code
"a set of laws governing marriage, divorce, inheritance of family property, responsibility for children, and other related matters."
the difference between what a man and a woman earn for doing the same job.
a shift from a non-democratic to a democratic regime.
"a key aspect of a county's cultural identity defined by three characteristics: high civic engagement, political equality, and solidarity. "
"the degree of citizens' active participation in public affairs, such as by voting or participating in social movements, interest groups, or political parties. "
citizenship offers both equal rights and equal obligations.
"the feature of a civic culture related to a general trust and respect among citizens, and a willingness to lend a helping hand, even when they might disagree on matters of public policy."
"suggests that democracy is not simply a function of economic growth, but rather that it is a function of the cultural changes that accompany economic growth."
"hypothesizes that economic growth that relies on one valuable natural resource is unlikely to result in an equitable distribution of wealth, which creates problematic political consequences."
when elements in a country's armed forces overthrow a democratically elected civilian government.
"the spread of political, economic, and cultural dynamics among governments, groups, and individuals beyond the borders of any one particular country."
when countries in a particular geographic region follow their neighbors in terms of adopting a regime type.
"regimes that combine elements of democracy, such as voting and elections, with non-democratic elements, such as restrictions on political contestation and individual rights."