Unit 5: Language Development

STUDY
PLAY
Symbols
Systems for respresenting ourt thoughts, feelings, and knowledge, and for communicating them to other people
Comprehension
With regards to languages understand what others say/sign/write
Production
Speaking/signing/writing to others
Generativity
Idea that through use of the finite set of words and morphemes, we can put together. An infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas
Phonemes
The elementary unit of meaningful sounds used to produce language
Phonological Development
The acquisition of knowledge about the sounds system of language
Morphemes
Smallest unit of meaning in language. Composed of one or more phonemes.
Semantic Development
The learning of the system for expressing meaning in a language, including word learning
Syntax
Rules in a language that specify how words from different categories can be combined
Syntactic Development
Learning the syntax of a language
Pragmatic Development
The acquisition of knowledge about how language is used
Critical Period for Language
Time during which language develops readily and after which (between 5 and puberty) language acquisition is much more difficult and ultimately less successful
Fast-Mapping
Rapidly learning a new word simply from heading the contrastive use of a familiar and the unfamiliar word
Pragmatic Cues
Aspects of the social context used for word learning
Syntactic Bootstrapping
The strategy of using the grammatical structure of whole sentences to figure out meaning
Telegraphic Speech
Children's first few sentences, which are typically two word utterances
Over-regularization
Speech errors in which children treat irregular forms of words as if they were regular
Collective Monologue
Conversation between children that involves a series of non-sequiturs. Content of each child's turn having little/nothing to do with what the other child said
Narratives
Descriptions of past events that have the basic structure of a story
Universal Grammar
A proposed set of highly abstract, unconscious rules that are common to all languages
Modularity Hypothesis
Idea that the human brain contains an innate, self-contained language module that is separate from other aspects of cognitive functioning
Connectionism
A type of information-processing theory that emphasizes the simultaneous activity of numerous interconnected processing units
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