Mutations can be induced by exposing organisms (or cells) to a variety of treatments.
UV rays cause POINT MUTATIONS & X-rays cause multiple forms of damage.
Can bend to DNA or the building blocks of DNA and interfare with the replication of transcription process.
The transition from a normal, healthy cells to a cancer cell.
Other Genetic Changes
Allerant cell division resulting incorrect division of the chromosomes can lead to ANEUPLOIDY. Viruses can cause genetic damage in several different ways and area associated with a wide range of CANCERS.
Classification of Cancer
Carcinomas- epithetial cells (90+%)
connective tissue cells.
Hemo poletic tissue (bone marrow)
A chemical which causes Cancer
When normal cells are exposed to chemical carcinogens and they become pre-cancerous.
Creation or more pre-cancerous cells which convert to cancerous cells
Development of MALIGNANT tumors.
Are DNA reactive chemicals. Involve direct modification of DNA. can lead to mutations-most-but not all cancers produce mutations.
Agents which lack of evidence of direct of DNA. Have indirect effect on genome through interacting with other cellular molecular such as mamalian DNA polymerase interaction of carcinogens with DNA polymerase causes loss of its fidelity leading to entrenouss sequencing mutations and cancer.
In humans it induced leukemia caused by organophosphate; saccann, plastics, bile salts etc.
Mechanisms of chemical carcinogens
A multi-stone process called "initiation-promotion model"
No common structural feature with evident but most are this.
Most carcinogens react covalently with tissue macromolecules by this (methylation, ethylation, etc.)
Contains an electrophilic (electron difficient atom) atom whom reacts with a nuclephilic (electron non) atom such as GSH