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PART I: Genetic change (mutations) vocabulary.

Induced Mutations

Mutations can be induced by exposing organisms (or cells) to a variety of treatments.


UV rays cause POINT MUTATIONS & X-rays cause multiple forms of damage.

Chemical Mutagens

Can bend to DNA or the building blocks of DNA and interfare with the replication of transcription process.

Steplyse Progression

The transition from a normal, healthy cells to a cancer cell.

Other Genetic Changes

Allerant cell division resulting incorrect division of the chromosomes can lead to ANEUPLOIDY. Viruses can cause genetic damage in several different ways and area associated with a wide range of CANCERS.

Classification of Cancer

Carcinomas- epithetial cells (90+%)


secretory cells.


connective tissue cells.


Lymphatic tissue


Hemo poletic tissue (bone marrow)

Ethidium Bromine

A chemical which causes Cancer


When normal cells are exposed to chemical carcinogens and they become pre-cancerous.


Creation or more pre-cancerous cells which convert to cancerous cells


Development of MALIGNANT tumors.

Genotoxic Carcinogens

Are DNA reactive chemicals. Involve direct modification of DNA. can lead to mutations-most-but not all cancers produce mutations.

Epigenetic Carcinogens

Agents which lack of evidence of direct of DNA. Have indirect effect on genome through interacting with other cellular molecular such as mamalian DNA polymerase interaction of carcinogens with DNA polymerase causes loss of its fidelity leading to entrenouss sequencing mutations and cancer.

Epigenetic Cancer

In humans it induced leukemia caused by organophosphate; saccann, plastics, bile salts etc.

Mechanisms of chemical carcinogens

A multi-stone process called "initiation-promotion model"

Elocotrophilic chemicals

No common structural feature with evident but most are this.


Most carcinogens react covalently with tissue macromolecules by this (methylation, ethylation, etc.)

Carcinogens Species

Contains an electrophilic (electron difficient atom) atom whom reacts with a nuclephilic (electron non) atom such as GSH


Growth stimulated hormone

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