Unit 6: Gender Development

Distinction between genetic females (XX) and males (XY)
Social assignment or self-categorization as male, female, or other
Behaviours stereotyped or expected for a given persons gender
Cross Gender-Typed
Behaviour stereotyped or expected for the gender other than that of a given person
Gender Typing
The process of gender socialization
Class of steroid hormone that normally occurs at higher levels in males than females. Affects physical development and functioning from the prenatal period onwards
Organizing Infleunces
Potential result of certain sex-linked hormones affecting brain differentiation and organization during prenatal development or at puberty
Activating Influences
Potential result of certain fluctuations in sex-linked hormones levels affecting the contemporaneous activation of the nervous system and corresponding behavioural responses
Gender Dysphoria
Psychiatric diagnosis included in DSM5 to children who experience distress because they do not identify with the gender assigned to them at birth
Individuals who do not identify with the gender or sex assigned to them at birth
Individuals who identify with the gender assigned to them at birth
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
Condition during prenatal development in which the adrenal glands produce high levels of androgens. If in females, can cause masculinization of external genitalia and sometimes associated with higher rates of masculine-stereotyped play in genetic females
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)
Conjuring during prenatal development in which androgen receptors final in genetic males, impeding formation of external genitalia; child may be born with female external genitalia
Gender Schema Filter
Initial evaluation of information as relevant for one's own gender
Interest Filter
Initial evaluation of information as being personally interesting
In-group bias
Tendency to evaluate individuals and characteristics of the in-group as superior to those of the outgroup
In-group assimilation
Process whereby individuals are socialized to conform to the groups norms, demonstrating the characteristics that define the in-group
The interconnection of social identities such as gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and class, especially in relation to overlapping experiences of discrimination
Learning through direct teaching
Enactive Experience
Learning to take in to account the reactions ones past behaviour has evoked in others
Observational Learning
Learning through watching other people and the consequences others experience as a result of their actions
Opportunity Structure
The economic and social resources offered by the macrosystem in the bioecological model, and perhaps peoples understanding of those resources
Gender Segregation
Children's tendency to associate with same-gender peers and to avoid other gender peers
Tendency to take action on behalf of the self through competitive, independent, and aggressive behaviours
Tendency to affirm connection with others through being emotionally open, empathetic, or supportive
Coordination of assertion and affiliation in behaviour, such as making initiatives for joint activity
Gender-role intensification
Heightened concerns with adhering to traditional gender roles that may occur during adolescence
Gender-role flexibility
Recognition of gender roles as social conventions and adoption of more flexible attitudes and interests
Onset of menstruation
Onset of ability to ejaculate
Body Image
An individuals perception of, and feeling about his/her own body
Period prior to emergent visible signs of puberty during which the adrenal glands mature, providing a major source of sex steroid hormones: correlates with the onset of sexual attraction