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Thurgood Marshall

NAACP lawyer during Brown v Board case; 1st black Supreme Court justice

Mahatma Gandhi

Father of non-violent protest; King admired him and adopted his approach

Black Panthers

Worked for civil rights through confrontation and violence


This group organized the Freedom Rides


Worked for civil rights through the legal system

1965 Voting Rights Act

Ended literacy tests and poll taxes; allowed officers to register voters

1964 Civil Rights Act

Outlawed segregation in public places; banned discrimination in employment

Rosa Parks

Her arrest started the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Civil Disobedience

Non-violent protest against unjust laws

Little Rock Nine

Students chosen to integrate Central High School in 1957

Emmett Till

Black boy from Chicago who was murdered when visiting in the South; emotional spark to the movement

Malcolm X

Black Muslim leader who believed white racism should be fought in a violent manner if necessary

Plessy v Ferguson

Established the "separate but equal" policy in the US

affirmative action

A policy to create opportunities for those that have been discriminated againt in the past


These started in Greensboro, North Carolina to peacefully protest segregation in restaurants, etc

King's letter from Birmingham Jail

He wrote the goals of the Civil Rights Movement while there.

Birmingham Marches

Fire hoses and dogs were used against children and teens who were peacefully protesting

Birmingham Sixteenth Street Baptist Church

A meeting ground and headquarters for the movement. It was bombed killing four girls

March on Washington

Marchers demanded passage of a civil rights bill, job opportunities and integration; "I have a dream" speech was given

Black Power

Stokely Carmichael coined this term, meaning pride in culture and black controlled communities

Brown v. Board of Education

Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, overturned Plessey v Ferguson.

Freedom Summer

A voters' registration drive in Mississippi turned violent when three college students (from the north) were killed.

Freedom Rides

Riders rode through the South to challenge segregation; violence erupted

Selma to Montgomery Marches

Marches for voting rights, police beat marchers and used tear gas against them; violence was shown on TV

Martin Luther King Jr.

Assassinated by James Earl Ray in 1968 while supporting garbage workers in Memphis

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