Terms in this set (55)
What is the fugal "theme" called?
What is stretto?
The second voice comes in with the subject before the first voice has finished playing the entire subject
What were some factors in the growth of Lied?
Interest in nationalism and returning to roots, boost in amateur music making thanks to the affordability of the piano
Who was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe?
A German poet popular at the end of the 18th century
What is the normal layout for a string quartet?
Sonata (allegro), minuet/trio, slow, fast (rondo)
What is the Heiligenstadt Testament?
A letter Beethoven wrote when he was contemplating suicide. He was sent off to he countryside to heal in 1802.
How many symphonies did Brahms write?
What is a leitmotif?
An instrumentation, rhythmic idea, or melody that is supposed to represent a specific character, object, or place
Which composer do we associate with leitmotifs?
Who were the Mighty Handful, and what was their goal?
They were five prominent Russian composers (Musorgsky, Balakirev, Cui, Rimskey-Korsakov, and Borodin) who worked together to develop a unique sound for Russian classical music
What are the five parts of Rossini's scene structure?
Orchestral introduction, scena (recitative), cantabile (singable), tempo di mezzo, cabaletta (faster)
What are the two aspects of Melodrama?
Spoken dialogue and continuous music
Who used the technique of developing variation first?
Who coined the term "developing variation"?
What are the 4 forms that a 12-tone row can take in Schoenberg's system?
prime, retrograde, inversion, retrograde inversion
Name four stylistic traits typical of Stravinsky.
block construction (from Musorgsky), juxtaposition, ostinati, blurring of the meter
What is impressionism?
music that is meant to embody or represent a scene or event, not an emotion; this music was beautiful, but had no goal direction or tonality
What is expressionism?
music that is meant to express an emotion or feeling by creating tension and release; may not be tonal, but could be organized atonally
What is neotonality?
defining the tonal center not be traditional means, but in new ways such as repeated chords and pitch series
What is neoclassicism?
1910-1950; revived, imitated, and evoked 15th century style
cors a piston en fa
horn with valves in F
tromba piccola Re
small trumpet in D
What is chromatic saturation?
The use of all 12 tones in a row/series in a passage of music
What does through-composed mean?
different music for almost every scene w/ little reception between sections of the work
Who was Robert Schumann's piano teacher?
Friedrich Wieck (Clara's father)
Who was the first great master of Romantic lied?
What were the three main types of Italian opera?
Seria, buffa, and reform
What did a dotted rhythm symbolize?
high style, fanciness
What things do we associate with Wagner?
endless melody, leitmotives
What did Stravinsky do?
popularized neoclassicism, supported serialism, borrowed Russian techniques from Musorgsky
What should we know about Bartok?
grounded in both traditions and modern ideas, virtuoso pianist, ethnomusicologist
What should we know about Hindemith?
could play basically all of the instruments ever, new objectivity (emotionally cool, distant, all neotonal), had to deal with the Nazis' crap
What should we know about Copland?
influenced many younger American composers, studied with Nadia Boulanger, jazz elements in early style
What should we know about Messiaen?
most important French composer born in 20th century, extended techniques of Debussy and Stravinsky, rejected traditional Western meter
What should we know about Cage?
use of untraditional instruments, structures based on duration, prepared piano, influenced by Zen Buddhism, chance operations and indeterminacy
What should we know about Ligeti?
micropolyphony (canons with main lines moving at different rates), Shepard effect (chromatic line played over and over gives sense of falling)
What is post-minimalism?
influence of minimalism, with traditional methods
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