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KR OTA 2150 Final Review
Terms in this set (101)
The 7 Steps of Group
Leader focuses on workers getting the job done with very little interaction or input from them.
Leader focuses on the task, but also encourages relationship building and worker development
Leader focuses on building relationships and supporting worker initiatives
Leader gives workers independence in how they do their jobs, with minimal direction.
Leaders create a vision and give followers the encouragement and resources needed to achieve that vision. Four behaviors compromise transformational leadership; idealized influence, inspirational influence, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Leaders lead by role-modeling or by example and inspire followers to perform exceptionally through encouraging them personally to use their creativity, innovation, and autonomy in pursuing shared values and beliefs.
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
Calls for leaders to motivate workers to perform well and to achieve job satisfaction.
Path-Goal Leadership 4 Behaviors
Telling workers what they need to do, in as much detail as needed. Incentives might build into this approach.
Emphasizes creating a friendly climate, showing concern for the well being and concernas of members, and remaining open and approachable, treating members as equals.
The leader consults with group members about topics, schedules, and activities; often asks for opinions and suggestions; and generally shares the leadership roles with mature group members.
Leaders motivate members through high-level challenges and by setting high expectations.
The OT defines a group, selects activities, and structures the group in ways that he or she knows to be therapeutically appropriate for a specific group of clients. The director uses authority sparingly, only as necessary to make the group therapeutic for its members. This is absolutely necessary for lower-functioning clients who do not have the cognitive capabilities to make decisions or solve problems. These clients do not feel safe when the therapist is not in control. The leader sets the goals, the level of structure, the media used, and the extent to which leadership responsibilities are shared with the group.
The facilitative leader must convince the members of the group that he or she is on their side and represents their be interests. The facilitator earns the support of the members by allowing them to make choices and showing care and concern. Decisions are made by the group with the facilitator's guidance. The OT facilitator openly discusses the purpose and goals of the group. Democratic leadership is the most likely to lead to group cohesiveness. As a group reaches the control phase, members must challenge the leadership, the structure, and/or the group task. A facilitator can allow him or herself to be challenged, use reason and logic to explain the way things have been, and give the group choices about changing them in ways that are not destructive to the group's integrity. This type of leadership is not suitable for clients functioning at a low cognitive level. Facilitation is very useful in motivating clients and getting them involved and, as such, is most compatible with a client-centered approach.
The advisor is the most passive of the leadership styles. Its use in therapy is limited to the most highly functioning groups working on goals like problem solving or attitude change. Clients who seek assistance with specific problems may need an OT to advise them. The advisor offers expertise as needed or requested, but does not provide structure or goals. This type of leadership is most appropriate when working with families, caregivers, self-help groups, or community organizations.
Advantages of Co-leadership
-Models for Each Other
You will be able to encourage one another and cover for each other's weaknesses.
Both leaders will be able to contribute ideas in the planning stage as well as provide skilled interventions and leadership during the group itself. A discussion between co-leaders after the group is over is an important learning tool for novice group leaders.
Models for Each Other
Every leader has different strengths and weaknesses, as well as different styles of intervention. Co-leader teams can help each other best by taking turns being active or directive and being attentive listeners and observers.
Co-leaders should take turns doing the confronting and rescuing so that no one has to play the "bad guy" all the time.
Disadvantages of Co-Leadership
Group members tend to favor one leader over the other. Clients often pressure one leader to take sides over the other.
Leaders seek to establish themselves as competent therapists, and the approval of others does much to enhance their self-esteem. While competition is not a bad thing, open communication about the feelings it evokes between co-leaders is necessary in order to avoid destructive consequences.
This occurs when one leader does most of the work, while the other sits back and watches.
Stages of Co-leadership
During this stage, the leaders are preoccupied with their feelings of self-worth as a leader and are plagued by fears of inadequacy.
This stage requires much interpersonal discussion and the recognition of differences. This stage MUST be resolved if the team is to work efficiently together.
Leaders view each other as individuals and they recognize each other's strengths and weaknesses as well as their own.
A relationship between leaders forms that allows each to grow in his or her role as leader. This interaction results in renewed enthusiasm for the group experience and its potential to help others.
Interpersonal Learning (Input)
Through participation and feedback from the group, members learn how they are viewed by others, can reflect upon how this compares with their own self-concept, and can become aware of negative social behaviors or habits that could be undermining their real-life relationships.
The Therapeutic value of this factor lies in its connection with some form of cognitive learning and reflection on its meaning.
Cohesive groups represent the end stage of grou development. Cohesiveness is a powerful force of attraction for group members that is also a precondition for the other therapeutic factors to function optimally.
Self-Understanding clarifies the continuity of past and present in one's life. This self-discovery has both positive and negative elements, accepting one's previous shameful thoughts or behavior as part of an imperfect self, and also discovering new strengths and abilities that can enrich one's life.
-Instillation of Hope
Interpersonal Learning (Output)
Members learn to better express their thoughts and feelings, practice resolving differences, and build skills in getting along better with others.
Factors relating to the human condition. The concepts of freedom and responsibility from existential philosophy can help group members to discover their own role in choosing the path their life has taken and accepting responsibility for their life choices, tather than blaming others.
The feeling that one is not alone is most often expressed by members in the early stages of groups.
Instillation of Hope
Coming to the group with high expectations that one will receive needed help can become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Members can raise their status in the group and feel a greater sense of well-being. Ots encourage this when they ask members to help one another with group tasks.
This factor may operate at an unconscious level. With guidence from the leader, members have the opportunity to break free from rigid family role scripts in which they have "unknowing have been long locked".
Includes didactic educational information or instruction as well as direct guidance and suggestions from others. This can be counter-therapeutic, when members reject initial advice, or when they feel others don't fuly understand their situations or viewpoints.
At an unconscious level, much social learning occurs through observing others and modeling the successful social behaviors of one's peers.
Involves orientation and testing regarding the group task and a dependence on the leader for guidance.
Involves conflict among group members as they challenge the task, the rules, and the leader
Harmony prevails, and members accept and trust one another while conflicts are avoided.
Goes beyond cohesiveness to a point where conflict can be openly discussed.
Reforming whose task it is to review an evaluate past performance, learn from both the positive and negative experiences, and reorganize itself accordingly for the future.
This represents an avoidance of some problem or threat.
This stage represents the challenge of the leader (and possibly scapegoating a rival member-leader).
This settles down the members to a stable working group with relatively little emotionality
The individual is concerned with being accepted. Members listen but do not really hear what others have to say. They tend to look to the leader when they speak rather than each other.
The group is generally, at some point, engaged in a leadership struggle. The once all-powerful and all-knowing leader is now viewed with skepticism and mistrust.
Members are able to really listen to each other, and even direct hostility may be expressed without devastating consequences.
A client's hesitant participation in the initial stage of the group stems from his or her need to understand how group membership will help meet individual goals. Socialization is also inherent in the process of a therapeutic group. Accordingly, members size each other up in order to determine whether or not they belong as they search for acceptance and approval.
Members are preoccupied with issues of power and control. As social conventions are abandoned, members feel free to make personal comments and criticism. The urge to rebel might not be a conscious process. Hostility toward the leader might be the most overt expression of conflict.
The earliest phase of cohesiveness occurs when the group successfully resolves the conflicts of the previous stage. IT is characterized by the emergence of a group spirit, high morale, and heightened mutual support. Competition among members is replaced by intimacy and trust, and an emotional atmosphere of nonjudgemental acceptance is created. Not until negative and positive can be freely expressed does the group reach true cohesiveness or maturity.
-Group Task Roles
-Group Building and Maintenance Roles
Group Task Roles
Suggests new ideas, innovative solutions to problems, unique procedures, and new ways to organize
Asks for clarification of suggestions, focuses on facts.
Seeks clarification of values and attitudes presented.
Offers facts or generalizations "automatically"
States beliefs or opinions
Spells out suggestions and gives examples
Clarifies relationships among various ideas
Defines position of group with respect to its goals
Subjects accomplishments of group to some standard of group functioning
Prods the group into action or decision
Expedites group's movement by doing things for the group such as distributing materials, arranging seating.
Writes down suggestions and group decisions, acts as the group "memory"
Group Building and Maintenance Roles
-Gatekeeper and Expediter
-Group Observer and Commentator
Praises, agrees with, and accepts the contributions of others.
Mediates the differences between other members
Modifies his or her own position in the interest of group harmony
Gatekeeper and Expediter
Keeps communication channels open by regulating its flow and facilitating participation of others.
Expresses ideal standards for the group to aspire to
Group Observer and Commentator
Comments on and interprets the process of the group
Passively accepts ideas of others and goes along with the movement of the group
-Special Interest Pleader
Deflates the status of other; expresses disapproval of the values, acts, or feelings, of others; attacks the group or group task
Tends to be negativistic or stubbornly resistant, opposing beyond reason or maintaining issues the group has rejected
Calls attention to self through boasting, acting in unusual ways, or struggling to remain in the limelight
Uses group as an audience for expressing non-group-oriented feelings, insights, or ideologies
Displays lack of involvement through joking, cynicism, or nonchalance
Monopolizes group through manipulation, flattery, giving directions authoritatively, or interrupting the contributions of others.
Looks for sympathy from the group through unreasonable insecurity, personal confusion, or self-depreciation
Special Interest Pleader
Cloaks his or her own biases in the stereotypes of social causes, such as the laborer, the housewife, the homeless, or the small businessman
Primary Accurate Empathy
The reflection of the feeling and content expressed by the client. PAE, used often in groups, will help build an atmosphere of safety and trust and will help the group progress toward the state of cohesiveness. This is considered Primary because it does not reach far below the surface. "You Feel_______ Because_______"
Advanced Accurate Empathy
This skill enables the therapist to bring feelings and thoughts that the client may only be implying to the forefront. Therapists find this difficult because it involves forming a hypothesis about the underlying or hidden feelings/topics the client just hints at with his or her statements. "could it be that___" "It seems likely that ___" " I could be wrong, but ____"
Mosey's Developmental Groups Leadership Roles
Made up of clients doing individual tasks side by side. Litter interaction is implemented
Emphasize task accomplishment. Some interaction may be built in. Social interaction outside of the task is not expected.
Require members to select and implement the task. Tasks are longer term. Social interaction is expected. Members are expected to respond to one another's social and emotional needs
Require OT only as an advisor.
OT leader is a co-equal member. The group members take on all the necessary leadership roles in order to balance task accomplishment with need satisfaction of the members
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