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KR OTA 2140 Midterm Review
Terms in this set (67)
The maintenance of the order in a living system.
The capacity for change that a living system has. (Marriage, birth, death, school progression, etc.)
Perceptual Coping Strategies
Use of Spiritual Beliefs
Ignoring a problem and hoping it will go away
Redefining a situation in ways that make it more manageable
Identifying a situation that is worse than your own
Use of Spiritual Beliefs
Using philosophic or spiritual beliefs to make sense of and find meaning in a situation
Solution-Focused Curiosity and Interest
The focus should be on the strengths, achievements, and desires rather than on the traditional problems and deficits. This solution focus allows the practitioner to support the adaptive potential of the family while not challenging or criticizing its current status.
Collaborative Goal Setting
Collaborating with the family to clarify and develop a common set of goals helps practitioners efficiently and effectively manage the intervention planning process. Staying close to the plan that was agreed on while being willing to change the plan as family needs evolve builds trust, and family members perceive the therapist as being interested in helping them achieve their goals.
OT practitioners acknowledge the clients with whom they are speaking by providing appropriate feedback. This feedback can be in the form of verbal repetition or confirmation of the clients' statements, nonverbal body movements, or paraverbal cues.
The OT practitioner's arrival of contact and departure are the most important movements of contact with a family. At both times, the practitioner should be solution focused or future oriented.
Pediatric Medical Care System
Comprises a group of individuals who form a complex and unified whole dedicated to caring for children who are ill.
Levels of Medical Care
Pediatric primary care is strongly grounded in the understanding that caregivers must receive assistance to recognize the need for routine and follow-up medical care. All medical personnel who provide services under this model of care are responsible for participating in educating family members, caregivers, and significant others.
Second-Level (Secondary) Care
This involves follow-up care that occurs once a child has become ill. This level of care is more intense than in primary care model. The increased level of care is provided to prevent the necessity of tertiary care.
Third-Level (Tertiary) Care
This involves the need for hospitalization, This is when serious concerns have arisen regarding involvement of the child's body systems and that additional body systems will be affected by primary or secondary causes associated with the child's illnesses. A greater level of responsibility for the child's recuperation is dependent on interventions provided by medical personnel.
This is an extension of Tertiary Care. This is highly specialized and provided in circumstances such as a severe trauma, significant burns, heart transplants, and experimental services. These medical interventions aren't found in every hospital.
Looks at the child's interests and values as important contributors to successful intervention and participation in occupational performance.
This is most applicable when the child is facing a transition and assisting the client to adapt to the changes.
The goal is to change the environment rather than to change the child.
This assists the child to perform age-appropriate tasks in areas of occupation. The intervention begins at the child's current functional level and providing the "just right challenge"
Sensory Integration (SI)
This is used to improve underlying dysfunction in areas such as body awareness, motor planning, balance, tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive processing. The intervention utilizes movement related activities and often incorporates use of suspended equipment to target the vestibular and proprioceptive systems.
Improve strength, endurance, and ROM for occupational performance
Children learn motor skills best by repeating the occupations in the most natural settings, varying the requirements. They learn from their motor mistakes.
Children learn motor patterns when they "feel" normal movement patterns. The clinician uses handling techniques and key points of control to inhibit abnormal tone and facilitate normal tone.
Infant turns blue because of insufficient oxygen
<100bpm in infants
Low Birth Weight (LBW)
Infant weighs less than 2500g
Very low Birth Weight (VLBW)
Infant weighs less than 1500g
Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW)
Infant weighs less than 750g
Less than 37 weeks gestational age
Public Law 93-112, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
Discrimination against people with disabilities when offering services is prohibited.
Public Law 94-142: Education for All Handicapped Children Act
Later Renamed: Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA)
All children have the right to free and appropriate public education
Public Law 99-457, Part H
Added to the EHA
Birth-to-3 services should be equal in all states and countries
Americans with Disabilities Education Act
In areas of public services, discriminatory practices against individuals with disabilities by employers are prohibited.
Renamed Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Includes adapting, grading, and reconfiguring activities and is considered a legitimate tool used in OT practice.
The process of changing steps during an activity so that the client is able to engage in it.
The process of arranging the steps of an activity in a sequential series to change or progress, allowing for gradual improvement by increasing the demand for a higher level of performance as the child's abilities increase.
The process of selecting, on the basis of the child's age, interests, and abilities, specific activities that will be used during the intervention process.
Signs and Symptoms of a Musculoskeletal Disorder
Misalignment of Joints
Warmth to Touch
An injury that doesn't disrupt the integrity of the skin and characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain.
Crush Wound or Injury
A break in the external surface of the bone caused by severe force applied against tissues.
The displacement of a bone from its normal articulation at a joint,
A traumatic injury to the tendons, muscles, or ligaments around a joint and is characterized by pain, swelling, and discoloration.
Breaks, ruptures, or cracks in bone or cartilage.
Has no open wounds from the broken bone penetrating the skin
Involves an open wound, when complications are common.
All or most of the arm is missing from the shoulder and below.
All of the arm is missing from the elbow and below.
One of the long bones of the forearm is missing. Fingers or thumb may or may not be missing.
Bones of the upper and lower are missing and all or part of the hand remains.
This can be genetic, but it can also be due to reduced amniotic fluid or CNS malformations. All joints of the extremities are stiff but the spine is not affected. Arm posture includes:
-Elbow Extension with limited flexion
-Flexed Wrists with Ulnar Deviation
Contractures in the lower extremities are noted with typical posture including:
-Knee Extension or Knee Flexion Contractures
Children with Arthogryposis can have many physical limitations that do interfere with all areas of occupational performance.
Congenital Hip Dysplasia
An infant may be genetically prone to instability of one or both hip joints, and stretching of an unstable hip or prolonged time in a position that makes the hip vulnerable may cause dislocation. Medical intervention at an early age is critical to preventing permanent physical or body structure damage. Surgery may be necessary. Less invasive procedures, such as bracing and casting, may promote proper hip alignment and stability. Those children who are in a full-body brace will not be able to explore their environments, so the OT practitioner may adapt developmentally appropriate activities to help these children explore.
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
Children with JRA experience exacerbations and remissions of symptoms. Joint protection techniques and energy conservation techniques are encouraged at all times so that these strategies become habit. Children may have functional limitations due to contractures and deformities.
A genetic condition in which cartilage doesn't ossify into bones, especially long bones of the arms and legs. Persons with this condition typically have a large and protruding forehead and short, thick arms and legs on a relatively normal trunk. They often have elbow flexion contractures and short fingers that affect fine motor development and hand use. They exhibit poor hand coordination and require OT intervention to develop hand skills for occupations.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
The muscle lacks a protein called dystrophin and is replaced by fat and scar tissue. The buildup of fat and scar tissue can make the muscles especially those of the calves look unusually large. Most children with DMD survive until their 20s. Very few live into their 30s. Sometimes parents suspect that something is wrong when their infant begins to walk on their tows around 1yo. Proper wheelchair positioning and support are important to prevent scoliosis. Older children with DMD may have to use a ventilator. High-resistance activities should be avoided as they can accelerate muscle cell damage; however, non-resistive exercise such as swimming or walking are encouraged to maintain strength.
Can be very mild-severe. Tumors in the brain and other organs. These individuals may have learning disabilities, possible hyperactive or aggressive behavior, inability to speak, severe delays in both gross and fine motor skills, and mild-severe delays in self-help skills.
Some common symptoms and signs of this are tremors and jerky gait, developmental delays, severe language impairments, very happy mood (happy puppet syndrome), and a possible seizure disorder. These individuals may have microencephaly, gross and fine motor delays, delayed walking skills, inability to speak, sleep disorders, severe sensory processing problems, and behavior problems.
This disorder is a growth failure disorder related to the poor suck-swallow reflex during infancy. The infant is often present with significant hypotonia. as the child gets older, they have an insatiable appetite and are at risk for obesity. They have varying degrees of intellectual deficits and self-mutilating behaviors.
During the first 6-18 months of life the child experiences normal or nearly normal development. At approximately 18months of life, the child experiences the loss of skills and the functional use of their hands. There is a development of repetitive, almost constant hand movements. They have shakiness in the trunk and limb. They also tend to have a wide, unsteady BOS and they are stiff-legged while walking.
Fragile X Syndrome
More common in boys than girls. They have limited cognitive development , and abnormal skull, joints, and feet structures.
Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome
These individuals are at risk for medical problems that include congenital congenital heart defects, duodenal atresia, hypothyroidism, hearing and visual difficulties, and increased risk for developing leukemia. These children may have C1-C2 instability. As children with Down Syndrome age, the focus of therapy shifts to promoting function in the school setting and later transition to vocational interests.
Infants who are born feet first or who are too large for the birth canal are at risk for this type of injury. This can generally be diagnosed in the first 24hrs after birth. Infants tend to keep their should adducted and internally rotated, elbow extended, and wrist flexed. Some children with Erb's palsy have long-term residual problems with innervation and function of the arm. Joint protection, gentle PROM, SI. and adapted holding and dressing techniques should be implemented.
Epilepsy occurs more often in children than in adults, and many children outgrow these seizures. Seizures are classified as one of three types: generalized (including grand mal, petit mal, myoclonic, tonic-clonic), partial (focal), and epilepsy syndromes. Children with developmental disabilities are at greater risk for seizures and it is five times more common in children.
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