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Final Chem 2 exam chapter 10
Terms in this set (47)
these types of forces are very important in condensed phases like liquids and solids
arise from electrostatic interactions between atoms and molecules
also known as london forces
arise from constant motion of electron within orbitals
every compound has these forces
depends on polarity( more polar, stronger force)
when covalent bonds are formed between two atoms with a large difference in electronegativities
do dispersion forces or dipolar interactions have longer distance dependence than dispersion forces
a special category of dipole-dipole interactions in they they involve OH NH and FH bonds
have the largest difference in EN of any possible covalent bonds and are most polar
the greater number of IMFs, the stronger the interaction between what?
the two molecules
IMFs are weakest where?
IMFs are strongest where?
the strength of an IMF can be determined by what type of energy?
going from solid to liquid phase
has a large and positive entropy change
a negative free energy change for the dissolution process also occurs with....
an exothermic (negative) enthalpy change.
if a dissolution reaction has endothermic enthalpy change, the dissolution process will be dominated by a
positive entropy change
characterized by a medium range order and long range disorder
attractive IMF forces between two different kinds of molecules
attractive IMFs between the same molecules
the resistance to flow or resistance to sliding past each other
substances with which strong force tend to have high viscosity
what happens to the boiling points of substances with strong cohesive forces?
stronger boiling points
substances with strong cohesive forces are associated with a generally _____________ enthalpy change
which means exothermic
defined as the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid
Substances with strong cohesive forces have a __________ surface tension
Substances with strong cohesive forces and weak adhesive forces do not "wet" the surface of glass. which forms what type of meniscus
convex (rounded top)
Substances with strong adhesive forces interact with the glass and form a
concave meniscus ("u" shape)
occurs in molecules with strong cohesive and adhesive forces.
change from gas to liquid phases
the change from
liquid to gas phase
when the rates of vaporization and condensation equal each other, the system is in
defined as the pressure exerted by the gas above a liquid in a
vapor pressure is affected by the strengths of what in the liquid?
the strong the IMF in the liquid, the __________ the vapor pressure
those with the highest kinetic energy in a liquid can
vaporize (and lowers the temperature of the liquid and is known as evaporative cooling)
defined as the point where the vapor pressure equals the
external (atmospheric) pressure
the boiling point of liquid
defined as the temperature when the pressure above the liquid is 1 atm
normal boiling point
liquids with stronger _________ have higher boiling points
IMFs (cohesive forces)
The relationship between a substances vapor pressure and its boiling point is the
refer to changes in state from solid to liquid or liquid to solid, respectively
melting and freezing
phase change directly from solid to gas without being liquid
phase change directly from gas to solid without being liquid
occurs for the molecules in a solid with the highest kinetic energy, if it is sufficient to overcome the IMFs.
practice drawing diagrams
characterized by a repeating, orderly pattern of atoms / molecules
formed into a regular lattice structure.
Ionic solids, metallic solids, covalent solids and molecular solids are able to form
lack this long-range, periodic order and are called non-crystalline solids.
characterized by the arrangement of atoms or molecules within the crystalline phase. Their specification requires the lengths of all three sides and the three angles describing the cell.
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