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A foreign invader that may cause disease


Anatomically, lymph vessels resemble what blood vessel?

lymphatic vessels, lymph, lymphoid organs, and lymphocytes

The major components of the lymphoid system

T cells, B cells, and NK cells

The three classes of lymphocytes found in the blood

helper T cells and suppressor T cells

Lymphocytes that assist in the regulation and coordination of the immune response

cell-mediated immunity

Cytotoxic T cells are the primary providers of what immunity?

physical barriers, phagocytic cells,
immunological surveillance, fever,
interferons, complements, and inflammation

The body's nonspecific defenses that are present at birth

immunological surveillance

NK (natural killer) cells sensitive to the presence of abnormal cell membranes are primarily
involved in what?


Circulating proteins that reset the thermostat in the hypothalamus, causing a rise in body

specificity, versatility, memory, and tolerance

The four general properties of specific defenses

redness, swelling, heat, and pain

Major events associated with inflammation

direct attack by T cells and circulating antibodies

The two major ways the body "carries out" the immune response


The first line of cellular defense against pathogens

active immunity

Immunity resulting from natural exposure to an antigen in the environment

passive immunity

Immunity that results from the transfer of antibodies to an individual from some other source

induced active immunity

The basic principle behind vaccination to prevent disease

humoral responses; antigens

B cells are involved with ________ and create a chemical attack on ________.

plasma cells

The cells responsible for the production of circulating antibodies

B cells

The cells responsible for humoral immunity

cellular immunity

T cells are responsible for what immunity?


In appropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens

an autoimmune disease

When an immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells and tissues

immunodeficiency disease

When the immune system fails to develop normally or the immune response is blocked in some way

provide protection against threats on an individual basis

Compared with nonspecific defenses, specific defenses

central nervous system

Lymphatic vessels are found in all portions of the body except what areas?

helper T cells

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively
infects what immune cells?


Red blood cells that are damaged or defective are removed from the circulation by what organ?

subsequent infections that involve the same antigen

Memory B cells respond to what?

aids in temporary repair at an injury site, slows the spread of pathogens, facilitates permanent repair

Why is inflammation important?

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