Linguistics for Non Linguists Chapters 10-13
Terms in this set (63)
Begins at several months of age (6). random practice using organs of speech, no specific lexical meaning expressed
liquids are acquired relatively late is evidenced by the phonological process of gliding. typically the [w] substitutes for liquid. pronouncing room [wum]
the substitution of a consonant stop for a fricative. [du] for zoo
simplification of clusters 10
reduction of consonant clusters. dink for drink
syllable repetition, mama, papa, peepee
final consonant reduction 10
deletes a post-vocalic, word-final obstruent, turning CVC into CV - gud for good
turning two adjacent segments into single segment CCV into CV snow pronounced no (voiceless)
one-word (holophrastic) Stage 10
sounds with specific meanings appear (the first words) as early as 9 months old. Mamma, dadda
two-word stage 10
...18-24 months "mini-sentences" with simple semantic relations
multiword stage 10
...same thing as telegraphic stage, 24-30 months, "Telegraphic" sentence structures of lexical (vocab) rather than functional or grammatical morphemes
telegraphic speech 10
...using sentence structures that are lexical (vocab) rather than functional or grammatical.
...Intonation is the system of levels (rising and falling) and variations in pitch sequences within speech.
...when a child will refer to more things using the word than it's meaning in an adult's lexicon (vocabulary). Cookie might be used to refer to anything round: cracker, coin, wheel, moon, etc...
basic-level term 10
...acquiring the meaning of individual words. Kids have to learn words like house before they can learn words like cabin.
positive member 10
...acquired first. Children give more positive responses to the question, which stick is longer? than to the question, which stick is shorter?
...first NP (noun phrase) in a sentence.
Elmo kissed Gina. = Elmo
...second NP (noun phrase) in a sentence
Elmo kissed Gina. = Gina
Minimum Distance Principle 10
...interpret the subject of a bare infinitive as the closest NP to the left. I told you where to sit, has two NPs to the left of the bare infinitive: I and you. The MDP predicts that the subject of the bare infinitive (where to sit) will be the closest NP to the left, which is you.
order of mention 10
...event in the 1st clause happened first, event in the 2nd clause happened second. He came home before he ate lunch. NOT He ate lunch after he came home.
...all human beings are born with all the knowledge that they will eventually have as adults.
...humans are born with none of the knowledge they will have as adults.
biologically determined behavior 10
...a part of nativism. We behave how we are structured by our genes as humans. Our ability to walk is biologically determined. We don't learn it, we simply acquire the ability because it's in our genes.
culturally determined behavior 10
...our behavior is a function of specific environmental factors. the ability to write is culturally determined. We go through trainign to learn how to do so.
language-specific capacities 10
...??? pg 231
general cognitive capacities 10
fixed onset 10
...??? couldn't find it....
language universals 10
...A linguistic universal is a pattern that occurs systematically across natural languages, potentially true for all of them. For example, All languages have nouns and verbs, or If a language is spoken, it has consonants and vowels.
central nervous system 13
...brain and spinal cord
lower brain stem 13
...consists of medulla oblongata and the pons. Damage can cause dysarthria (inability to produce articulate speech)
higher brain stem 13
...consists of thalamus and midbrain. Breathing, heart rate, body temp, incoming sensory stimuli
...lies to the rear of the brain stem, controls equilibrium, plays no role in language processing
...the part of the brain on top of the brain stem and cerebellum. Divided into left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body.
corpus callosum 13
...connects the two hemispheres.
frontal lobe 13
...processes olfactory stimuli
parietal lobe 13
...processes tactile and visuospatial stimuli
occipital lobe 13
...processes visual stiumli
temporal lobe 13
...processes auditori stimuli
fissure of Sylvius 13
...separates the frontal and temporal lobes
fissure of Rolando 13
...separates teh frontal and parietal lobes
supramarginal gyrus 13
...is a portion of the parietal lobe. It is probably involved with language perception and processing, and lesions in it may cause receptive aphasia.
angular gyrus 13
...a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language, number processing and spatial cognition, memory retrieval, attention, and theory of mind.
Heschl's gyrus 13
...occupies brodmann's area and processes auditory signals
primary motor cortex 13
...also known as the motor strip, one of the principal brain areas responsible for motor function and the execution of movements in muscles.
localizationist view 13
...believe that specific parts of the brain controlled different mental functions
holist view 13
...believed that different mental functions were not localized in specific parts of the brain
Broca's area 13
...Damage here Affects speech production
Wernicke's area 13
...Injury here leads to comprehension difficulties
supplementary motor cortex 13
...third language area, lies in superior region of frontal lobe.
...the hemisphere of a person's brain that is primarily responsible for processing language.
...surgical removal of a hemisphere -
left hemispherectomy = suffer a permanent loss of ability to process language
right hemispherectomy = less like to cause language processing loss
planum temporal 13
...white fiber tract underneath the left and right temporal lobes. It larger in the left hemisphere, indicates that left dominance in humans is biologically determined.
Wada test 13
...test given to determine an individuals brain dominance.
dichotic listening 13
...a technique created by Kimura where subject hears 2 auditory signals at the same time to determine which ear "advantage" they have right ear or left ear.
right/left ear advantage 13
...right ear advantage - hearing in the right side, dominant over the left, indicates left dominance. Better able to hear language.
left ear advantage (right hemisphere) - hearing is dominant on the left side, indicating right dominance. Better able to hear environmental sounds: clicks, tones, buzzes, coughing, etc...
split brain 13
...having the corpus callosum severed or absent, so as to eliminate the main connection between the two hemispheres of the brain. Done when people have seizures to prevent damage from traveling from one hemisphere to the other.
...the mental perception of depth or three-dimensionality by the senses, usually in reference to the ability to perceive the form of solid objects by touch.
Broca's aphasia 13
...impairment of language function due to stroke or head injuries. Slow, distorted speech. Agrammatic. Mostly lexical words. Function words wrongly used, or not used "I eggs and eat and drink coffee breakfast"
Wernicke's aphasia 13
...includes anomia (trying to find the right word), speech is fluent, but difficult for the hearer to understand.
..., a new word, expression, or usage; the creation or use of new words or senses
conduction aphasia 13
...also called associative aphasia, is a relatively rare form of aphasia. An acquired language disorder, it is characterized by intact auditory comprehension, fluent (yet paraphasic) speech production, but poor speech repetition.
...finding the right word
semantic aphasia 13
... a disorder of language in which patients demonstrate a progressive deterioration of understanding words, especially nouns, and recognizing objects while other cognitive faculties remain remarkably spared.
word deafness 13
...an inability to identify spoken words, resulting from a brain defect such as Wernicke's aphasia.