64 terms

Political Revolutions

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Declaration of Independence
Document declaring American independence from Britain
Thomas Jefferson
Author of the Declaration of Independence
checks and balances
System in which each branch of government checks, or limits, the power of the other two branches
federal system
System of government in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution; protections of basic rights for individuals
Old Regime
System of feudalism
Estate
Social class of people
Marie Antoinette
Unpopular queen; wife of Louis XVI
Estates-General
Assembly of representatives from all three estates
National Assembly
French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate
Tennis Court Oath
Promise made by Third Estate representatives to draw up a new constitution
Great Fear
Wave of panic
Legislative Assembly
Assembly that replaced the National Assembly in 1791
émigrés
Nobles and others who left France during the peasant uprisings and who hoped to come back to restore the old system
sans-culottes
Radical group of Parisian wage-earners
Jacobin
Member of the Jacobin Club, a radical political organization
guillotine
Machine for beheading people
Maximilien Robespierre
Revolutionary leader who tried to wipe out every trace of France's past monarchy and nobility
Reign of Terror
Period of Robespierre's rule
Napoleon Bonaparte
Military leader
who seized power in France
coup d'état
A sudden takeover of a government
plebiscite
Vote by the people
concordat
Agreement
Napoleonic Code
Complete set of laws set up by Napoleon that eliminated many injustices
Battle of Trafalgar
British defeat of Napoleon's forces at sea
lycée
Government-run public school
blockade
Forced closing of ports
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations
guerrilla
Spanish peasant fighter
Peninsular War
War that Napoleon
fought in Spain
scorched-earth policy
Policy of burning fields and slaughtering livestock so that enemy troops would find nothing to eat
Waterloo
Battle in Belgium that was Napoleon's final defeat
Hundred Days
Napoleon's last bid for power, which ended at Waterloo
conservative
People who supported the monarchy
liberal
People who wanted to give more power to elected legislatures
radical
People who wanted to end the rule by kings and give full voting rights to all people
nationalism
Belief that a person's loyalty belongs to the nation itself instead of to the nation's ruler
nation-state
Country with its own independent government
the Balkans
Region including all or part of present-day Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and former Yugoslavia
Louis-Napoleon
Winner of the presidential election in France in 1848; later emperor
Alexander II
Ruler of Russia who freed the serfs
Russification
A policy of forcing Russian culture on ethnic groups in the Russian Empire
Camillo di Cavour
Prime minister who unified northern Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Leader of the Red Shirts who won control over parts of southern Italy
Otto von Bismarck
Leader who worked to expand Prussia
Junker
Wealthy German landholders
realpolitik
Tough, practical politics
kaiser
Emperor
romanticism
Movement in art and ideas that focused on nature and the thoughts and feelings of individuals
realism
Movement in art that tried to show life as it really was
impressionism
Style of art using light and light-filled colors to produce an "impression"
proletariat
The workers
Bolsheviks
Group of revolutionaries led by Lenin
Lenin
Leader of the Bolsheviks and first ruler of the Soviet Union
Rasputin
Eccentric monk assassinated because of his corrupt influence on the Russian royal family
provisional government
Temporary government led by Alexander Kerensky
soviet
Local governing council
Communist Party
A political party practicing the ideas of Karl Marx and Lenin
Joseph Stalin
Revolutionary leader who took control of the Communist Party after Lenin
totalitarianism
Government that has total control over people's lives
Great Purge
Arrest, exile, or killing of thousands of suspected enemies of the Communist Party
command economy
Economy in which the government makes all the economic decisions
Five-YearPlans
Plans to develop the Soviet Union's economy
collective farm
Large, government - owned farm