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Environmental Health Final, Environmental Public Health Final Review
Terms in this set (88)
What is the primary component of smog?
Briefly describe what happened in 1948 in Donora, Pennsylvania and what conditions caused it to happen there.
Air inversion; fog combined with particulate matter and industrial and other contaminants settled over the valley.
What is the federal standard for air pollution?
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
What are the two main chemicals responsible for acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide
Define global warming
An increase in the near-surface temperature of the earth, in part due to increased emissions of greenhouse gases and deforestation.
Explain what greenhouse gases do
In sufficient concentrations in the atmosphere, they may have the effect of trapping heat and causing the earth's temperature to rise.
What is the international legally-binding compact with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions around the globe?
The Kyoto Protocol
Define temperature inversion
Atmospheric condition during which a warm layer of air stalls above a layer of cool air that is closer to the surface of the earth.
This can cause pollutants to build up when they are trapped close the earth's surface.
What are some natural sources of air pollution?
- Wind storms that spread dust clouds
- Salt evaporation along the earth's coasts
- Production of materials that have a biological origin (ie. mold spores and pollen)
- Forest fires
- Volcanic eruptions
What are some anthropogenic sources of air pollution?
- Electric generating plants
- Factories and manufacturing complexes
- Oil refineries
- Chemical plants
- On-road vehicals
- Off-road vehicles
- Nonroad vehicles
What is the most dangerous particulate matter?
Particulate matter (PM) 2.5
Define Air Quality Index
An index for reporting daily air quality, which tells the public how clean or polluted the air is.
What are the 3 emergency classifications by causative agent or hazard?
1. Natural (ie. biological hazards/outbreaks)
2. Technological/anthropogenic (man-made)
3. Hybrid (ie. radiation disaster after 2010 Fukushima earthquake and tsunami)
What is the difference between isolation and quarantine?
Isolation: Separation of patients infected with or exhibiting disease symptoms of a communicable disease
Quarantine: Separation of persons exposed to but not exhibiting symptoms of a communicable disease
What are the four elements of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal?
Waste and wastewater produced by residential and commercial sources and discharged into sewers is defined as what?
What is the importance of the Love Canal?
It was a toxic waste site that was covered up and used to build houses and schools. Due to toxic chemicals being emitted into the environment, residents experienced various health outcomes. Families who resided on the site were evacuated and officials declared a national emergency. The Superfund was created after this incident.
List the dangers of landfills
- Air quality
- Ground water contamination
A liquid produced as water percolates through wastes, collecting contaminants.
Who was the Public Health reformist in the 1800s who advocated for urban water systems and safe sewage transfer and disposal?
a. Alice Hamilton
b. John Snow
c. Edwin Chadwick
d. Rachel Carson
c. Edwin Chadwick
What are the five sources of hazardous waste?
What does the Superfund legislation mandate?
The cleanup of hazardous waste sites
Anthropogenic sources of exposure to ionizing radiation do NOT include which of the following?
a. Nuclear power plants/generators
b. Radioactive fallout from above-ground nuclear weapon testing
c. Decommissioned and abandoned nuclear weapons facilities
d. Medical X-rays
e. Cosmic rays
e. Cosmic rays
True or False:
Radiation includes both ionizing and nonionizing radiation
List the four common units of radiation
A measure of radiation dose deposited in body tissue, averaged over the body
Amount of radiation in a sample of material
Radiation absorbed dose
Ionizing ability of gamma radiation
What are some examples of nuclear accidents?
Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, or Fukushima
List the four major categories of food hazards
- Biological (ie. bacteria, viruses)
- Physical (ie. stone, glass, metal)
Heat-labile, mobile bacterium that causes one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses in the U.S.
Able to be killed with sufficient heat
Salmonella bacteria are transmitted through:
a. Environmental surfaces at work and home
b. Raw meats
c. Poultry and seafood
d. Animal feces
e. Contaminated water and soil
f. All of the above
f. All of the above
Name the bacteria that causes botulism
True or False:
Clostridium botulinum grows in anaerobic (oxygen-free) environments
This bacteria causes hemorrhagic colitis (blood diarrhea):
a. Eschirichia coli (E. coli O157:H7)
b. Staphyloccus aureus
c. C. Perfringens
a. Eschirichia coli (E. coli O157:H7)
What animals carry the bacteria Trichinella?
Pigs, black bears, and cougars
What animals carry the bacteria Taeniasis?
Pork and beef
Name 2 foodborne illnesses caused by worms and the foods associated with them
Trichinosis - pork and grizzly bear meat
Tapeworms - beef and pork
What virus is commonly transmitted on cruise ships?
Name common foods containing Hepatitis A
A way to prevent foodborne diseases is:
a. Heat and cool foods at proper temperatures
b. Avoid cross-contamination
c. Proper hand washing
d. Cook at proper temperatures
e. All of the above
e. All of the above
The danger zone of for food temperatures are between:
40 degrees Fahrenheit and 140 degrees Fahrenheit
This is part of the Food Additives Amendment that prohibited use of additives with any risk of carcinogenic effects
This repealed the Delaney Clause and established the standard that a substance could not cause a lifetime incidence of more than one cancer case per 1 million exposed persons
Food Quality Protection Act
List the seven principles of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP)
1. Perform a hazard analysis
2. Decide critical control points
3. Determine critical limits
4. Establish procedures to monitor the critical control points
5. Establish corrective actions
6. Establish verification procedures
7. Establish a record keeping system
This is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis and is transmitted to humans through the bite of rat flea
Agent Orange, which contained small amounts of dioxin, was in this category of pesticide
Name the three essential metals with the potential for toxicity
Copper, Zinc, and Iron
Name the author of the seminal book, Silent Spring, published in 1962
What are the two movements in 1960 that created environmental justice?
Civil movement and the environmental movement
Ingestion of this metal creates Minamata Disease
This person documented links between toxic exposures and illnesses among miners and tradesmen
This person used epidemiological methods to link cholera to contaminated water
This vector-borne disease is transmitted through the bite of a mosquito and is caused by a parasite
True or False:
Malaria is an arbovirus
Criteria Air pollutants
they are regulated by the protection of environment agency. They control the air pollution in and around the country. They are carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and lead.
Normal ambient air
ambient air is fresh air that is inhaled by the people and can live health. Non-hazardous.
how does air pollution endanger human health both short and long term.
Air pollution has long term and short term effects. Humans are affected by the emission of hazardous gases. Short term side effects are aching in lungs, burning eyes and coughing. Long term is wheezing and headaches.
How does air pollution impact the environment? Effects of NOx and SO2 to structures over time
Air pollution causes acid rain, global climate change, eutrophication, wildlife adverse effects, and depletion of the ozone. Nitrogen Oxide and sulfur dioxide damages monuments and structures. These acids in the air cause consume the stones in buildings and monuments.
a comprise of pollution from factories. They include incinerators, electric generating plans, chemical plants, oil refineries, factories and manufacturing complexes.
pollution that is caused by moving objects like cars, trucks, or busses.
pollution caused by wind and rain. Natural occurring oxides in wind can cause air pollution. They can also be dust clouds, salt evaporation, and organic material from plants and animals.
pollution that is a mix of mobile and stationary sources. The pollution that is emitted from industries are combined with the pollution from cars, trucks, and busses.
describe how ground level ozone can be harmful to our health while the upper stratosphere ozone plays an important role in protecting our health
Ground level ozone layer can cause breathing difficulties and irritation of the eyes for everyone epically, young, elder and people who exercise outside. The stratosphere helps in human healthier. The layer keeps the earth cool enough so that there can be life. The respiratory infections might be reduced as the air in the stratosphere is clean.
explain the adverse health effects to carbon dioxide and what population groups are more vulnerable
Carbon monoxide in high levels can result in death or other serious consequences. People who are the most vulnerable are, tobacco smokers, people with heart disease, miners with poor ventilation, and people with respiratory diseases.
define temperature inversion and how it contributes to the creation of smog
The temperature inversion is a measurement to atmospheric condition. Where the warm air stays above the layer of cool air in earth's atmosphere. Pollutants that are trapped in the inversion layer create smog.
name risk groups and health effects to diesel exhaust
Scientists says that diesel has carcinogens that the more exposure to diesel exhaust causes serious lung diseases in both children and adults. Children who travel in diesel school busses are at high risk. Also, people who live in urban areas are affected by the exhaust from the vehicles that run on diesel are high at risk.
define air quality and how it aids in protecting the public
Air quality index is the quality of air in a local area. This helps the individuals who live in the area helps them stay away from diseases that is caused by air pollution.
describe the difference between sick building syndrome and building related illness. How can humans get sick from indoor air pollution
Sick building syndrome is a range of symptoms that is related to the time spending in a certain building. Building related illnesses are related to diseases or conditions that is caused by substance or microorganism present in a building. Sources of indoor air pollution are carbon monoxide, benzene, formaldehyde, naphthalene, tobacco smoke and organophosphate pesticides.
what is a greenhouse gas and what is the effect
Greenhouse gases is a gas that helps in the absorption of radiation. The gas emits radiation and the radiation helps in the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gasses help trap heat caused in the atmosphere of the earth.
what are the 3 methods to control greenhouse gases
There are 3 methods to control greenhouse gases. They are, planting trees, recycling, and the use of energy efficient products can all help control greenhouse gases. Planting trees can reduce the rate of deforestation.
Active surveillance systems
relies on health care professionals or labs to request information about food borne disease.
chemicals or substances included in food products to increase taste, flavor and appearance
international symbol used to indicate irradiated food products.
describe what hazards can be present in food
Biological hazards- viruses, bacteria, poisonous plants- we should try and to control these things so that they can be far away from the public.
Physical hazards- hair, bones, broken glass, dirt, wood, metal staples, nails in food products- we should try and keep these away from the public too. Wear hair nets, wash your hands.
Chemical hazards- food additives, toxic metals, pesticides, and preservatives. - The CDC regulates this pretty well but we could add more to the list to prevent accidents from happening.
transmitted by environmental surfaces from seafood, poultry, raw meat, milk and other dairy products. Unpasteurized milk can cause outbreaks
bacteria that causes perfringens food disease. Causes difficulty breathing, abdominal distention, constipation and weakness of muscles. Outbreaks can occur when meat is consumed at improper temperatures.
what are some pesticides that have caused food poisoning
Insecticides, Herbicides, and fungicides are pesticides that can give us food poisoning. We can prevent contracting them by buying organic vegetables and fruits, and wash them.
name 2 microbial agents of foodborne disease that occur among food animals
Amoxicillin and penicillin are 2 microbial agents of foodborne illness that occur among food animals. Fish or chicken that is raised with other contaminated animals might get humans sick from the microbial agent that is preserved in the meat. Vaccines can be used to treat it.
what food borne pathogen is associated with stillbirths and what foods does it associate with
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes stillbirths. Raw milk, cheeses, ice cream, raw vegetables and meats have all been associated with this pathogen. You can prevent this by rinsing fruits and vegetables, and cook meat thoroughly.
what pathogen is responsible for trichinosis and what foods does it associate itself with.
Trichinella spiralis causes trichinosis disease that can be found in animals. Pork, improper storage of meats and unclean kitchen utensils can all carry the pathogen.
what pathogen is associated with cruise ship outbreaks
Norovirus is the microbial agent that is prevalent in the cruise ship environment. You can prevent an outbreak by frequently washing your hands, avoiding people who are ill and avoiding contaminated water and food.
name 3 laws associated with US food saftey
-The federal food, drug and cosmetic act, 1938- to regulate and control pesticides in food additives and other foods.
-Miller pesticide amendments, 1954- to modify the regulation of pesticides by adding additional standards.
-Food additive amendments, 1958- to exhibit the safety of food additives
name international and national food agencies associated with food safety
-The food and agriculture organization of the United nations- international agency that improves the productivity of agriculture.
-FSIS- they insure the commercial supply of poultry, egg, and meat products.
-State and local health departments- ensure and develop food safety programs, controlling and reducing the burden of foodborne disease, and establish international standards in public health.
Risk factors of foodborne illnesses and preventions
Risk factors of foodborne diseases are- improper temperatures for storing and cooking food, unclean kitchen utensils, and food from dangerous sources. You can prevent foodborne illnesses by using organic vegetables and fruits, and washing them.
Procedures of the local health department for investigating an outbreak of foodborne illnesses
The health department will investigate the outbreak by: establishing the survival of outbreak, controlling ongoing outbreaks, detecting and removing implicated foods, identifying risk factors, and regulate food safety.
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