Chapter 8 Quiz
Terms in this set (32)
What is absolute threshold?
the weakest amount of a stimulus that a person can detect half the time
What is the absolute threshold for the 5 senses?
-sight: seeing a candle flame 30 miles away on a clear night
-sound: hearing a watch ticking 20 feet away
-taste: tasting 1 teaspoons of sugar dissolved in 2 gallons of water
-smell: smelling 1 drop of perfume in a 3-room house
-touch: feeling a bee's wing falling a distance of 1 centimeter on your cheek
What is constancy?
the tendency to perceive certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting
What is convergence?
gives depth perception based on how much eyes are turned inward
What is difference threshold?
the smallest change in a physical stimulus that can be detected between two stimuli
What is an example of difference threshold?
put someone in a dark room and turn the light on higher until they can see it
What is just noticeable difference?
the point where someone can notice a change
What is figure ground perception?
-our visual system organizes images into figures that we see and a background
-our brain tries to turn things into 3D because it is easier than 2D
-helps us to make sense of things
-helps us in hearing familiar song tunes
What is Gestalt?
-the experience that comes from organizing bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes
-putting together a shape, pattern, whole form, or configuration
What are the Gestalt principles?
What is proximity?
things that are closer together will be seen as belonging together in groups
ab cd ef gh
What is similarity?
states that things which share visual characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, value, or orientation will be seen as belonging together
What is continuity?
predicts the preference for continuous figures and patterns
What is simplicity?
we see the simplest pattern
What is closure?
when we tend to see complete figures even when part of the information is missing
What are illusions?
-created when perceptual clues are distorted
What is motion parallax?
-the apparent movement of objects that occurs when you move your head or walk around
-the apparent movement of stationary objects relative to one another that occurs when the observer changes position
What is perception?
the organization of sensory information into meaningful experiences
What is perceptional inference?
-filling in the gaps
What are examples of perceptional inference?
-when seated in a dark theatre, you assume the seat will hold you
-you hear a rooster and assume that it's a rooster not a dog
-you hear sirens and assume that their is an emergency vehicle nearby
-reading a skimming but still understanding
What is the pre-attentive process?
considers stimuli automatically/simultaneously and all at once
What is the attentive process?
considers stimuli only one part at a time
What is psychophysics?
the study of the relationships between sensory experiences and the physical stimuli that causes them
What is sensation?
what occurs when a stimulus activates a receptor
What is sensory adaptation?
allows the body and senses to respond and change to survive in the changing environment
What is signal-detection theory?
-the study of people's tendencies to make correct judgements in detecting the presence of stimuli
-studies relations between motivation, sensitivity, and decision making in detecting the presence or absence of a stimulus
What is an example of signal-detection theory?
being able to listen to music and do homework at the same time
What is a stimulus?
any aspect of or change in the environment to which an organism responds
What is the Stroop Effect?
-interference of the left and right brains
-evidence that forces compete for our attention
What are subliminal messages?
brief auditory or visual messages presented below the absolute threshold so there is less than a 50% chance they will be perceived
What is telepathy?
mind to mind communication
What is Weber's Law?
the principle that the larger or stronger a stimulus, the larger the change required for an observer to notice a difference