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Final Test POLS Gubala
Terms in this set (53)
Political Values - What are they? Differences b/w values & opinions & attitudes? Fundamental values?
liberty-Freedom from government
Equality- of opportunity 1 person 1 vote
democracy-ruled by the people for the people
Public Opinion - What is it? What causes differences in opinion? Who/what shapes? Role of education? Gender Gap?
opinion that people have issues, events and personalities
government uses public education to teach core values
the higher education people tend to participate more
the voting pattern is different between men and women, men are more conservatives and women are liberals
Political Attitudes- What?
specific view on a particular issue, event, personality
Political Ideology - What is this? Differences b/w & beliefs of Liberals & Conservatives & Core values?
complex set of beliefs and values that form a general philosophy about the role of government
Political Socialization - What? Agents of socialization?
induction of an individual into a political culture
it teaches values and produces different attitudes
Political Knowledge and Political Efficacy - Informational shortcuts?
can you change government
Higher SES tend to have more Efficacy to have knowledge requires time and energy
What shapes public opinion? Marketplace of ideas?
political knowledge and media
media is the marketplace for ideas, the government and private groups
Opinion Measurement - Question wording - What impact does this have?
the wording of a question can impact an outcome or the answers a person may have
Public Opinion Polls: Sample? Sampling Error? Margin of Error? Random-Digit-Dialing? Probability Sample? Selection Bias?
sample small groups selected by researchers to represent the most important characteristic in population
people selected by using 10 digit phone number
every person in a given population is given an equal chance at being included
polling error that arises when the sample not represented of the population not being studied is over/under being represented
Measurement Error - What? Causes?
failed to identify the true distribution of a population
Social Desirability Effect
respondents feel pressured to answer any socially desirable manner, (Church Attendance)
Push Polling & Bandwagon Effect & Illusion of Saliency
common in elections questions are used to shape responses
shift in electoral support to the candidate the polls say will win
something more or less than it actually is.
Median Voter Theorem - What? Who ends up influencing politicians the most?
a majority rule voting system will select the outcome most preferred by the median voter
Media Sources - What are they? Most/least in depth of coverage? Reaches most/least? Most important? Which sets the agenda?
Broadcast, Print, and Online
Broadcast reaches the most people
Online reaches the least amount of people
Print media sets the agenda, most important
Sound Bite - What are they? Examples?
short clip that dominates the media,
Radio News - Why repetitive?
To get the general idea in your mind
Internet - Pros/Cons - % offline? Why do people prefer online news? Digital Citizens - % offline?
pros-has the ability to be the most important but it is not, 20% of Americans are offline
digital citizenship- able to participate in politics online
its free and it links to thousands of stories
Decentralization of the news
local news has increased do to online coverage
Penny Press - What?
its what people used to copy newspapers, it cost only a penny to make newspapers
Local v/s National News & Nationalization of the news AND coverage (more positive?)
local- more friendly to politicians
national- its pretty vicious, able to create their own bias because of the broadness of their viewers
Media Regulation - Who regulates? What can be regulated?; Media Ownership - Who owns?
FCC regulates it regulates broadcast media
media tends to be owned by a large conglomerates
Equal Time Rule & Right of Rebuttal & Decency Act
candidates running for same political office must be given equal time to communicate their message to the public
individuals have the right to respond to personal attacks made on radio or TV
illegal to present sexual material on the internet
Fairness Doctrine - Who might this impact if they resume enforcement?
ceased enforcement 1985
requirement that broadcasters that air programs on controversial issue must provide time for opposing view
News - What factors impact what gets reported? Role of reporters? Wire reports? Selection Bias in the news?
news leaks, press releases, people who work for the news, sources, audience, adversarial journalism
selection bias- media tends to report with a high dramatic/entertainment value
Niche Journalism & News aggregators
niche journalism- news targeted to a niche
news aggregators- google/yahoo news, links to thousands of stories
Decentralization of the News
local news has increased due to online coverage
Ideology of Media & Conservative v/s Liberal media
conservative- liberty , social and political status quo, keep gov out of the economy, let private sectors help
liberal- equality- social and political reform, extensive gov intervention, woman, poor, minorities, consumers, environment
Power/Influence of News media - factors (agenda setting, priming, and framing)
agenda setting- power of the media to bring attention to particular issues
framing- medias power to influence how people intemperate issues and events
priming- preparing the public to take a particular view of an issue event or personality
all interest groups should be free to compete in influence in gov't
Interest Groups - What? Functions? Who joins the most (types of people)?
a group of people that organizes to be heard and influence govt' polities and programs
Types of Interest Groups - Be able to recognize name of interest group and determine the type
Business and agriculture- direct economic interest in government (i.e. shell oil, IBM)
Labor groups- lobby on behalf of organized labor(i.e. united mine workers)
Professional interest groups- lobby on be half of professions( i.e. american medial association)
Public interest groups- (PIG) lobby for public concerns, typically in areas of consumer and environmental concerns (i.e. sierra club)
Ideological group- lobby for 1 ideology
Public sector groups- lobby on behalf of people who work for the public
Membership v/s Staff Associations
member associations- members who do the work
staff organizations- paid staff does most of the work. volunteers may help
aren't as represented
Characteristics of Successful Interest Groups? (i.e. - major organizational factors)
Collective Goods and Free Riders - What? Why do we have free riders? Way to solve this problem?
collective goods- broadly available and cannot be denied to non members
free riders- people who benefit form collected good but do nothing to acquire them
Selective Benefits: Informational; Solidary; Purposive; Material
informational- newsletters, magazines
materials- bag, t-shirts, coupons,
solidary benefits- emphasize friendship, networking, conscious raising
purpose benefits- emphasis groups purpose and accomplishment of goals
Political Parties v/s Interest Groups -Difference b/w IG's and political parties?
parties hold personnel elections
groups of people that organizes to be herd and influence gov't policies programs
Rise of IG's - What caused change?
New politics movement
New Politics Movement & Public Interest Groups (purpose?)
made up of professionals and intellectuals shaped by civil rights and vietnam strengthened our public interest groups
Negotiated Rulemaking Act and the Administrative Procedure Act - Stakeholder Influence
negotiated rule making- encourages administrative agencies to engage direct negotiaion w/IG laws are developed
administrative procedure act- requires most agencies to provide notice for comment before a law is implemented
Lobbying - What? Disclosure rules? Best resource? Protections for Lobbyists & Lobbying? Where can they lobby?
attempt on influencing the policy
lobbyist are best resource because of their connections
cannot happen on the floor of the senate and HR
Lobbying - 1st name used? Things lobbyists can do at the federal level? Where protected in the Constitution?
can: provide info and campaign $, meet with media, draft legislation, testify @hearings, directly lobby congress, can be a former gov official
freedom to petition
Iron Triangle v/s Issue Networks
I triangle- stable relationship b/w IG, congressional committees and government departments
Issue network- loose relationship
IGs and Courts - What can groups do and what can't they do?
use litigation when lack of access
1. bring lawsuit directly on behalf IG
2. Finance lawsuit brought on by individual
3. file a companion brief on an existing cause
cannot- deduct lobbying as business tax, many not give a gift more than $50 or more than $100 a year, pay for trips
Lobbying/Interest Group Strategies
grassroots, institutional advertising, astroturf, mobilizing public opinion
Grassroots Mobilization & Astroturf Lobbying & Institutional Advertising & Mobilizing Public Opinion
grassroots- interest group goes to their members and asks to contact their member of congress
astroturf- fake grass roots
institutional advertising- need to create favorable opinion to reach congress
mobilization public opinion-crest a favorable climate of public oppinion
PAC - What? Who do they give money to? Issue Advocacy?
Political actions committee
More PAC $ is spent by top IG goes to top incumbent
IG in TX: Access? Types? Who is not represented? Top v/s Weak IGs in TX? Ways to gain access? Grange?
single corporations or multiple corporations
demographic groups age and minorities
multi issue groups
grange- most known IG
What can IGs and Lobbyists do in TX? Benefits IG's have over individuals?
can represent more than 1 interest group
can men former gov officials
directly lobby to all 3 branches of gov
can be full or part time
can be a celebrity
can fain access via gifts dinners and tickets
When are IGs powerful in states?
Single party states
Lobbyists in TX - What can they do? Laws/Rules-weak or strong? Who spends the most $? PAC spending-most/least?
PAC- political actions committee
can: represent their members, lobby, provide information, provide campaign $, voter mobilization, meet with constituents, do interviews, testify in hearings, draft legislation, and meet with politician
Incumbents and Interest Groups?
Getting on the Late Train? Bundling?
late train-IG makes a contribution late in a campaign to the challenger
bundling-practice of combining individual campaign contributions w/ an IG donation goal is to increase the impact of the IG on the campaign
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