CLP 3143 Exam 4
Terms in this set (172)
What is Intellectual Disability?
Intellectual deficits and adaptive functioning deficits resulting in below average intellectual functioning
What is the IQ score of a normal person?
What is mainstreaming?
the integration of adolescents who have educational handicaps into regular classrooms
What is necessary for diagnosis of intellectual disability?
What are genetic factors of mental retardation?
Genetic-bound and runs in families
What causes Down Syndrome?
Caused by three chromosomes on pair 21 instead of only two - all brain structures are smaller than normal children
What are physical symptoms of Down Syndrome?
slanted eyes, short and stocky stature, short neck, small ears, physical defects and medical problems
What is Phenylketonuria (PKU)?
A genetic disorder in which the body cannot break down the amino acid phenylalanine - accumulation in the body causes mental and physical abnormalities
What is Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)?
The most commonly cause of intellectual disabilities - occurs when DNA makes too many copies of itself and turns off an X gene
What are other behavior disorders that may accompany FXS?
Hyperactivity, temper tantrums, irritability, and self-injurious behaviors
What is a leading cause of intellectual disabilities?
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy - fetal alcohol syndrome
What are Cultural-familial retardation?
Retardation due to psycho-social disadvantage -(poor nutrition, impoverished situations, restricted access to medical care) causing negative affects on the brains
What are psychological treatments for intellectual disabilities?
Learning skills such as self-care, independent living and job maintenance - medication is used for aggressive or attentional behaviors
What is a Specific Learning Disorder?
Defined by difficulties in learning and using academic skills
When a clinician makes a specific learning disorder diagnosis, what specifiers are used?
Impairment in reading, written expression or mathmatics
What is Dyslexia?
An impairment in reading or problems in word recognition, reading rate or fluency, or reading comprehension
What is Dysalculia?
Impairments in mathematics
What is Dysgraphia?
An impairment in written expression that includes difficulty in creating grammatically correct sentences, making spelling errors or hand-eye coordination problems
What are treatments for Specific Learning Disorders?
Interventions for reading that focuses on developing the skills needed and arithmetic drills/memorization
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?
A disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and interactive skills that are often accompanied by repetitive or restrictive behavior.
What is echololia?
the repetition of the last word, sound, or phrase that was heard
What are behavioral problems often found with autism spectrum disorder?
Hyperactivity, impulsivity, social anxiety, general anxiety, irritability, depression, phobia and aggression
Which gender is autism more common in?
Boys than girls
When is the onset of autism?
Onset is always before age three but most often clear by ages 2-3
What are behavioral treatments for autism spectrum disorder?
Positive reinforcement and shaping
What medications may be used for Autism Spectrum Disorder?
No medications may be used unless for treating specific behaviors
What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? (ADHD)
When a child's physical activity is excessively overactive and results in negative outcomes
What are the two categories of ADHD?
Inattentiveness (distractibility and inability to focus) and Hyperactivity
When is ADHD most commonly diagnosed?
Early elementary school - when diagnosed at preschool age, the combined typed is most common
What are disorders that are commonly diagnosed to individuals suffering with ADHD?
Conduct problems, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and learning disabilities
What is the etiology of ADHD?
It is a neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic, biological and environmental influences
Where do abnormalities show for ADHD persons?
Abnormalities are shown in the frontal cortex, cerebellum and subcortex
What are treatments for ADHD?
Stimulant medications (Ritalin) - enhance the neurotransmission of dopamine and norepinephrine and allows the chemicals to stay in synapses for longer time
What is Conduct Disorder?
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated
What is oppositional defiant disorder?
A pattern of anger/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior or vindictiveness
When do Disruptive, Impulse control and conduct behaviors (ODD) symptoms first occur?
During the preschool years, before early adolescence
What are the disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders (ODD) associated with?
Academic failure, substance abuse, sexual behavior and criminal activities
What are causes of ODD?
Potential environmental causes (maternal smoking, substance abuse, pregnancy and birth complications, postnatal environmental toxins, child abuse, and socioeconomic status)
What are treatments for ODD?
Psychosocial interventions, parent management training, individual therapy, family therapy and social work interventions
What is Enuresis?
The repeated voiding of urine into one's clothing or bedding - either during the day (dirual enuresis), at night (nocturnal enuresis), or both.
What is primary enuresis?
Children who have never established control or urinary continence
What is secondary enuresis?
Child who has established proper bladder control, but who has since lapsed back to wetting the bed.
What is the most common form of Enuresis?
Primary nocturnal enuresis or bed-wetting
What is the most supported treatment for enuresis?
An enuresis alarm (bell-and-pad method) which consists of battery-operated alarm or vibrator that is connected to a wire that is attached to the child's underwear, sleeping pad or bedding and alarms the child to use the toilet when urination begins
What is the most common medication for enuresis?
Desmopressin Acetate (DDAVP) - reduces nighttime urinary output and number of enuretic episodes
What is Encopresis?
The repeated passage of feces on or into inappropriate places, whether voluntary or intentional by someone over the age of 4
How do children suffering from encopresis feel?
Ashamed and avoid social interactions
Who is more likely to be diagnosed with encopresis among white children?
Boys were three times more likely than girls
What is the etiology of encopresis?
The result of withholding the stool (possibly as a result of previous painful defecation experiences or extremely hard stools)
What are treatments for encopresis?
Medical treatments (enemas to clear the bowel and laxatives) and behavioral interventions. Medical-behavioral intervention is most successful
What is geropsychology?
subdivision of psychology that deals with issues of aging related to people over 65 years of age
What is a serious psychological issue of older adults?
What are the most common psychological problems that older adults have to deal with?
Depression and anxiety
What is Vascular Depression?
a mood disorder that occurs in the context of cerebrovascular disease
What is the rate for adults over 65 to commit suicide?
Americans over the age 65 commit suicide at a rate twice that of younger adults
Which gender completes suicide more and which gender attempts suicide more?
Men complete suicide more and women attempt suicide more
Who experiences depressive disorders more?
For older people, depressive disorders are more common in women than men and suicide rates are higher for when men
What is a Life-Span Developmental Diathesis-Stress Model?
It considers the role of biological predispositions, stressful life events, and person protective factors
What is a more common disorder that receives less attention in older adults?
Anxiety disorders - specific phobias and generalized anxiety disorders
In older adults, what may be a cause of anxiety?
Psychological responses to medical illnesses, a part of medical picture, or a separate psychological syndrome
Why are SSRIs preferred over benzodiazepines for older adults?
The side effects of SSRIs are not as severe as those of benzodiazepines.
Which form of therapy is more effective in older adults for treating anxiety?
Cognitive-behavioral group therapy
What are the most common substance-related disorders in older adults (50+)?
Abuse of alcohol, misuse of prescription medications, and tobacco abuse
What is the most commonly abused substance in older adults?
Which disorder accounts for more disability and mortality among older adults than all other substance use disorders?
Tobacco use disorders
Who is more likely to have a substance-related disorder in adults?
Older men use alcohol twice as much as women but women use prescription medications for non-medical reasons than men
What is Brief Alcohol Counseling?
A treatment for those suffering of substance-related disorders that provides family support and education
For people with late-life schizophrenia, what do they have a higher prevalence of?
The paranoid subtype as well as more auditory hallucinations
When is late-onset schizophrenia more common?
More common among women but begins at an earlier age for men
What are causes of late-onset schizophrenia?
Brain abnormalities (enlarged ventricles), deficits in hearing and vision, and more severe cognitive impairment
What are treatments for psychosis?
Typical anti-psychotic medications, skill training, cognitive behavioral therapy, family support and education, and learning of social, communication and life skills
What is delirium?
disturbance in attention or awareness that typically occurs in the context of a medical illness or after taking a drug
Who is at a higher risk for delirium?
What are causes of delirium?
Often brought on by a serious medical illness, metabolic disorders, neurological disorders, malnutrition, alcohol and drug intoxication, and dysfunction of prefrontal cortex, thalamus, basil ganglia and neurotransmitters
What are treatments for delirium?
Manipulation of the environment (reducing sensory stimulation, encouraging presence of family, minimizing use of physical restraints) and low-dose antipsychotic medication (if medication is needed)
Why are neurocognitive disorders devastating?
They take the person's ability to function independently and create significant emotions problems
What is the most common and harmful disorder of older age?
How can one diagnose a neurocognitive disorder?
The clinician compares cognitive difficulties with prior levels of functioning
What is major neurocognitive disorder subtype?
When does the rate of progressive deterioration in cognitive capabilities and functioning increase?
When the severity of disease worsens
What is involved in Alzheimer's Disease?
The presence of neurofibrillary tangles (twisted protein fibers within neurons and cerebral senile plaques)
When is Major or Mild Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder diagnosed?
When a patient's history, lab tests, and/or brain imaging studies indicate cognitive impairment as a result of cardiovascular disease
What is a leading disorder that can lead to dementia that is difficult to differentiate from Alzheimer's disease?
Substance use - alcohol-related disorders
In which gender is Alzheimer's disease more common?
More frequent in women than men but equal across races
What are causes of neurocognitive disorders?
Multiple genetic and environmental factors, and increase age
What preventive actions can one take to reduce neurocognitive disorder symptoms?
Advance education (increase neuronal connections), increased education may use more of their frontal lobes, diet, decreased fat and cholesterol intake, moderate use of alcohol, and increased engagement in mental activities
What is a Cholinesterase Inhibitor?
A treatment that slows cognitive decline and improve global functioning for patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease
Which vitamin appears to slow the progress of symptoms of Alzheimer's?
High doses of Vitamin E
What is health psychology?
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
What is health?
A state of mental, social, and physical well-being - not just the absence of an illness
What is behavioral medicine?
The study of the relationship between behavioral and biomedical science
What is medical psychology?
the study and practice of psychology as it relates to health, illness, and medical treatment
What is the center of health psychology?
What does the Biomedical model explain?
Illnesses only as biological processes
What psychological variables may affect physical health?
Health habits, attitudes, medical illnesses, personality characteristics, stress and social support
What is Stress?
Any negative emotional experience that is accompanied by biochemical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral responses that attempt to change or adjust to the stressor
What is a stressor?
Any agent that produces tension or another negative emotion and prepares the organism for a fight-or-flight response
When can stress occur?
When an event is perceived as uncontrollable, unpredictable, or ambiguous
What is acute stress?
When a potentially threatening event and the reaction to it lasts for a brief time
What is chronic stress?
stress associated with long-term problems that continues over time as a chronic illness
What are daily hassles?
minor aversive events that happen day to day can accumulate to create stress
How can stress be measured?
With an acute stress paradigm, with Holmes Social Readjustment Rating Scale or with the Hassles Scale
What did Walter Cannon develop and describe the body's reaction to stress as?
The Flight-or-flight response which prepares the organism to escape or engage in conflict when dangerous stimuli/events happen
What are physical responses to stress?
Increase sympathetic nervous system activity, and increase blood pressure, heartbeat, and respiration
What was Hans Selye's theory of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
Three stages that explained a person's response to stress: alarm when the body mobilizes to meet a threat, resistance when the person attempts to cope with or resist the threat, and exhaustion when continued efforts to overcome the threat deplete physical resources
What medical illnesses are related to chronic stress today?
Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and arthritis
What systems in the body are affected by stress?
Increased glad stimulation (secretion of epinephrine and nor-epinephrine) and the immune system becomes supressed
Why are T-Lymphocytes important? (T-cells)
they secrete chemicals that attack and kill invading microbes - some are killers and some are helpers
What do B lymphocytes do?
secrete antibodies or toxins into the blood to kill invading bacteria and viruses
What is psychoneuroimmunology?
study of relations among social, psychological, and physical responses
Who has the best immune functioning?
happily married men
What increases in result of stress and weak immune system functioning?
Increase in negative moods and disrupted immune response
What are stress moderators?
variables that affect how stress is experienced and how it affects health and other aspects of functioning
Which personality type is more influenced by stress?
What is an important predictor of health?
Socioeconomic status (education, income and occupation, social support)
What are the coping styles for stress according to gender?
Men use problem-focused coping (doing something to change stressful conditions) whereas women use emotional-focused coping (reducing their emotional distress by expressing feelings and seeking social support to cope with stress)
What are sleep disorders that may cause stress?
Sleepwalking, nightmares, sleep terrors (abrupt terror arousal, panic scream, intense fear, and autonomic arousal, and narcolepsy (irresistible need to sleep), insomnia
What is a cataplexy?
Can be caused by narcolepsy - where a person suddenly loses muscle tone when awake
What is the most common form of sleep difficulty?
Insomnia - problems falling asleep or staying asleep, waking up too early, feeling fatigued
Who has more sleep difficulties?
Women and older adults
What is HIV?
human immunodeficiency virus that destroys the body's ability to fight infection and some types of cancer
What is AIDS?
acquired immune deficiency syndrome and is diagnosed when HIV infected persons have a low number of t-cells or when one of 26 clinical conditions appears as a result of opportunistic infections
What is the second most leading cause of death in the US?
Cancer - followed by heart disease
When does a pain disorder diagnosis occur?
When a patient's primary complaint is persistent pain that occurs without sufficient medical explanation
What is pain?
An indication that something is wrong in the body and a source of disability reducing productivity
What is the most common medication for pain?
Morphine and other analgesic medications
What are non-medical treatments for pain?
Relaxation training, biofeedback (learn to modify physical response) and hypnosis (learn to relax; trance-like state is induced and used to reduce pain and change pain-related thoughts)
What is a health psychologist?
Works with a patient or medical team to change behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs to promote health and improve adjustments to illness
What is primary prevention?
increasing healthy behaviors among people without disease
What is secondary prevention?
Health promotion programs for people are increase risk for health problems
What is stimulus control in health behavior?
a behavior change strategy based on classical conditioning - involves modify behavior by changing the stimuli that bring on that behavior
What contingency contracting?
A strategy that relies on setting up a reinforcement program to encourage healthier behavior
What are ethics?
Accepted values that provide guidance in making sound moral judgements
What guides the behavior of most pscyhologists?
The American Psychological Association's (APA)
How many core values of the code of ethics?
What is the process of deinstitutionalization?
The release of patients from hospitals to community treatment settings
Why did the deinstitutionalization movement fail?
Discharged patients did not receive the outpatient care and supervision they needed, clinics were understaffed, staff was underqualified, and continued care was not a thing
What does successful deinstitutionalization require?
Continued outpatient care as well as the skills and resources for living independently
What is civil commitment?
state-initiated procedure that forces involuntary treatment on people who are judged to have a mental illness, present a danger to themselves or others, and refuse to participate in treatment voluntarily
What is outpatient commitment?
Process by which the courts can order patients committed to a course of outpatient treatment specified and individualized to prevent relapse and deterioration
What is criminal commitment?
occurs when a person with a psychological disorder commits a crime
What is not guilty by reason of insanity?
a legal decision that describes people who commit a crime, but whose psychological disorder prevents them from understanding the seriousness and illegality of their actions - considered not to have criminal intent
What is the M'Naghten Rule?
States that someone can not be held responsible for his actions if (1) he did not know what he was doing or (2) he did not know that his actions were wrong
What is the Durham Rule?
An accused person is not criminally responsible if it is shown that the unlawful act was the product of a mental disease or defect (had to have a formal diagnosis)
- Very difficult to apply effectively
What is the Insanity Defense Reform Act?
As a result of mental illness, the defendant lacks the capacity to appreciate the nature and quality or wrongfulness of the act
How can a person be convicted of committing a crime?
If a person possesses mens rea - a guilty mind or criminal intent
What is "being incompetent to stand trial"?
When a person is so impaired that they may not be capable of assisting with their own legal defense
When is a patient medicated against their will in a hospital?
If the patient is a danger to staff or to other patients
What is privilege as a legal term?
A term that prevents a therapist from revealing confidential information during legal proceedings
What are the two components of HIPPA?
Security and privacy
What is the duty to warn?
The duty of a practicing clinician to warn the authorities or persons in danger if the client expressed harmful thoughts
What is malpractice?
professional misconduct or unreasonable lack of skill
What are the four major ethical issues of research?
the rights of research participants, special rights of research participants, special rights and issues for children and adolescents, the use of placebo controls, and the importance of conducting research that reflects diversity of populations
What is the Nuremberg Code?
Specifies that subjects must voluntarily consent to participate in clinical research and subjects should know the nature, duration & purpose of the research and the methods and means
What is the Declaration of Helsinki?
basic guidelines for the conduct of research that includes need for clearly formulated procedures, careful assessment of risks and freedom to withdrawal
What are the three basic principles of the Belmont Report?
respect for persons, the researchers do not harm the person & the benefits outweigh the risks, and justice for quality between benefits and burdens
What does the National Institutes of Health mandate regarding subjects?
The subject must be a representation of the U.S. population
Down syndrome is cause by
the presence of an extra chromosome
The rate of Down syndrome as a proportion of live births increases with
the mother's age
A form of mild retardation resulting from both biological and environmental factors associated with psychosocial disadvantage is called
Two behavioral procedures that allow children with intellectual disability to learn simple tasks are
shaping and chaining
Learning disorders are probably the result of
the inability of several brain areas to work together
One indication of the neurodevelopmental basis of autistic disorder is
unusually fast head and brain growth in infancy
The treatment approach that uses shaping and positive reinforcement to improve social, communicative, and behavioral skills by intensively shaping and rewarding specific behaviors used to treat autism disorders is called
applied behavior analysis
Ted has been diagnosed with ADHD. Which behavior is not likely to be a problem for him?
Adolescents with ADHD have more car accidents. This is most likely due to
inattentiveness and poor motor coordination
Stimulant medications such as Ritalin work to reduce the core symptoms of ADHD by
enhancing the neurotransmission of dopamine and norepinephrine
Unlike boys with conduct disorder, girls with conduct disorder engage in more
Kim was toilet trained by the time she was 3 years old. Now, at age 6, she is wetting the bed three nights per week. She has
Executive dysfunction occurs when a person has difficulty
planning, thinking abstractly, initiating and inhibiting actions
Substance abuse is often only recognized in the elderly when
it affects a medical condition or causes accidents
The most commonly abused substance in older adults is
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