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psych forensics exam 1 cumalitive
Terms in this set (226)
advancing their version of the evidence
during the trial, attorneys make opening statements and closing statements for the purpose of
leagal realism; natural law
the---- approach treats laws as being actively constructed by judges as serving social policy goals, whereas ---- treats laws as evolved to reflect the principles found in nature.
Ricardo is conducting research to determine the effectiveness of the D.A.R.E. program. This is an example of the following role played by a psychologist in the legal system.
To achieve justice
during the trial each side is trying to win the case. However the goal of the legal system overall is to.
difficult but important
differences in goals methods and styles of inquiry made the relationship between psychology and law
science translation and advocacy
According to the textbook when writing amicus curia briefs it may be hard for psychologists to balance the goals of.
disseminating the knowledge gained from research studies by describing them in popular press like time magazine
the text mentions several impactful ways for scientists to influence the legal system which of the following is not one of them?
the ruling cited research conducted by social scientists
The famous brown v. board of education 1954 case, besides being one of the most important supreme court rulings of the 20th century, was a milestone in the psychology and law alliance for the following reason
sylvester is hired by the defense to help select jurors who would be less likely to convict . This is an example of the following role played by psychologists in the legal system.
Legal rulings in cases decided a long time ago may still apply to current cases
At the end of the 19th century Justice oliver wendell Holmes famously said: "Law is the goverment of the living by the dead." His saying reflects the currently relevant principle that:
When evaluating the state of mind of a teenager who brought guns to school.
Berta is a developmental psychologist. Her knowledge and skills might be most relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
When deciding whether jurors understand jury instructions correctly.
Jasmine is a social psychologist. Her knowledge and skills might be most relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
provide a way to influence the court when expert testimony is not allowed.
Amicus Curiae briefs
goals, methods, and styles of inquiry
When psychology and law are discussed as embodying different cultures, the following underlying differences between the two fields are considered most important.
Lawyers often "Shop around" for an expert who would support their side
The ways the Daubert trilogy affected the legal system include all of the following except:
According to the text, legal culture tries to avoid--- whereas for psychology---is an integral part of the scientific process
assembling a phony lineup//
Since the 1960's and throughout the present time, an interrogator in the united states would be likely to use all of the following forms of coercion to elicit confessions , except:
When a confession exsists, juries --- come back with a conviction.
loss of control
Desiree has been sitting in the interrogation room for a while. She is not sure how long the interrogation can last or even if she can ask for food and water. She gets increasingly uncomfortable and worried. This situation illustrates which one of the four basic influence strategies inherent in the Reid technique?
The Reid technique is -- used by police in the united states when questioning suspects. Establishing a sense of loss of control as part of this technique makes suspects feel...
After the Miranda v. Arizona 1966 decision, all suspects must be informed of their so- called Miranda rights. These constitutional rights include all of the following, except for the right to:
Confess to the good cop when alone with him
When the police utilize a good cop bad cop approach, the suspect is likely to:
Even though a --- may rule that a confession is inadmissible because it was coerced such rulings are----.
despite the decline, just as
In the united kingdom, the police and criminal evidence (PACE) act was enacted to make it illegal to trick suspects or to lie for the purpose of coercing suspects to confess. Studies show that --- of pressure tacticts and trickery, suspects are--- likely to admit guilt.
direct physical violence
Between the 1930s and 1960s an interrogator in the united states would be likely to use all of the following forms of coercion to elicit confessions except:
During the interrogation of a suspect openly physical brutality was---- prior to 1930.
Jeremy purposely confessed to a crime he did not commit to cover it up for his wife. This type of confession is referred to as an :
confessions save time
According to the textbook, police prefer a confession because:
According to research studies described in the text, mock jurors who reported that they disregarded the confession as clearly coerced were--- likely to convict the defendant.
studies prove that false confessions are extremely rare
According to the text, all of the following statements about false confessions are true, except:
disregard ; not confess
Research in the field of social psychology has discovered that people tend to --- the impact of situational forces, and this process is responsible for believing that suspects in police custody would --- to a crime they did not commit.
telling the suspect that he will get a reduced sentence if he confesses to the crime
In the united states, the following interrogation techniques are legal except?
coercing the suspect to confess
According to the text when police use the polygraph, it is usually done for the purpose of:
increases cognitive load
Elena was suspected of committing a fraud. Investigators asked her to tell her story in reverse. This promising lie detection technique is based on the idea that narrating backwards:
the polygraph machines used in these studies are outdated.
The rates of accuracy of the polygraph have been calculated using controlled lab studies and mock crimes. These rates are likely to be somewhat inflated for the following reasons, except:
reduces polygraph examiners to mere technician
Unlike other polygraph tests the guilty knowledge test (GKT):
fine tune the pol graph readings to each suspect //
One of the most important tasks of the polygraph examiner using the standard procedures like CQT is to:
countermeasures to polygraph testing
Techniques such as biting ones tongue, pressuring ones toes to the floor, or counting backwards are all examples of:
Making suspects listen to their own story recorded.
Some promising low- tech methods of lie detection include all of the following except:
There is a lack of standardization and significant subjectivity in polygraph examiners scoring //
There are several problems with standard polygraph techniques like CQT which of the following is not one of these problems?
Lying can be best described as;
Did you ever do anything illegal or dishonest //
The comparison question test CQT polygraph technique utilizes comparison questions that are supposed to make a person uncomfortable (so called known lie questions) Which one of the following questions is not a good comparison question for CQT purposes?
barley; not been very succesful
According to research completed by bond and depaulo 2006 peoples ability to distinguish lies has a ---- above- chance rate of accuracy and efforts to improve peoples ability to discern lies have---
If a person is lying the polygraph can pick up the following changes in his or her physiological functions except:
in the criminal justice system //
According to the text the most prevalent use of the polygraph in the united states is'
Our tendency to seek out information that supports our beliefs is otherwise known as:
Jared was questioning a suspect using Reid technique, and after a long and exhausting interrogation the suspect falsely confessed to the crime just to put an end to the interrogation. When hearing this confession, Jared felt even more confident that the suspect was guilty. This is an illustration of the phenomenon that psychologists call"
all private employers for the purpose of hiring for a job //
the federal polygraph protection act of 1988 prohibited the use of polygraph by:
causes physiological arousal
The basic theory behind the polygraph is that lying:
All of these statements are true
According to the "lie spotting" author Pamela mmyers talk..
each scientific study undergoes extensive scrutinize by peer reviews //
All of the following problems plague forensic science except:
Low measurement validity
A survey was administered to high school seniors in anytown. According to the survey results, fewer than 0.5% of the students drove drunk in the previous 6 months. A month later, the survey was repeated and it again indicated that fewer than 0.5% of anytown seniors drove drunk in the previous 6 months based on this information the survey has:
when comparing the latent prints with the suspects fingerprints a -- makes a decision on whether there is a ----
is the most frequently used data base in the world //
The combined DNA index system CODIS maintained by the fbi :
Identification based on measurable anatomical traits //
Biometrics is the:
contextual bias //
Kelly works as a fingerprint examiner. A police detective showed her some gory photos of the crime scene and told her that the suspect in custody is a likely perpetrator of the murderer. Kelly is more likely to find a match between the latent prints and the suspects prints because of:
expert declares a match when there is no match in reality
A false positive means that a:
temporal consistency is sometimes refereed to as:
This is not a research question scientists are interested in answering//
According to the text it is not easy to calculate the false positive rate for most types of trace evidence because:
Match plus statistic
Shelly testifies in court that the DNA recovered at the crime scene is likely to come from the suspect because less than 0.0001 % of population have this specific genetic marker. This type of identification is called an:
a family members face
face identification technology has become more accurate in recent years, but still has its limitations for example the face recognition security on the iPhone X an be easily fooled by
41%, 80% //
Research Daniel kahneman gave the following problem to a variety of people: A cab was involved in a hit and run accident at night. two cab companies the green and the blue operate in 85% of the cabs in the city are green and 15% are blue A witness identified the cab as blue the court tested the reliability of the witness under conditions that existed on the night of the accident, and concluded that the witness correctly identified a cabs color 80% of the time an failed 20% of the time what is the probability that the cab involved in the accident was actually blue? Kahneman discovered that most people believed that the answer was close to ---- although the real answer is actually ----
One of the most serious ---- of profiles is that ---- profiles may direct the police to look at the wrong suspects.
Intimate strangulation or torture
Many serial killers seem to prefer to use--- methods of killing, such as---
high frequency of the use of profiling.
According to the text some persistent problems with profiling include all of the following except:
some recurring patterns; are no characteristics
The characteristics of serial killers seem to have ---- though there are ---- common to all serial killers
Most serial killers do not fall neatly into just one of these categories
Holmes and Holmes 2010 have categorized serial killers into four types visionary mission oriented hedonistic and power oriented subsequent research showed that
brain injury that impairs rational thinking
Many serial killers suffer from ---- that impairs their ---
Developing some leads in the ongoing investigation
profiles are created primarily for the purpose
Like with any other technique what would be required to demonstrate the usefulness of profiling is:
in less than 3% of the cases //
In a study examining the effectiveness and accuracy of profiling criminal profiles led to the identification of a perpetrator:
Alexis is trying to figure out whether murders in three different states were committed by the same person. This process is refereed to as:
College undergraduates had a bias toward shooting black targets but not white targets //
Correll and associates asked various groups of participants to engage in a first person shooter simulation In the simulation participants saw unarmed and armed targets and were supposed to shoot the armed targets and not shoot the unarmed targets some targets were white and some where black error rates were used to calculate whether participants were biased toward shooting as opposed to not shooting each type of target Corells results showed that:
Female serial killers are more likely than male serial killers to kill
Aileen Wuornos is an example of the type of female serial killer known as the ---
Aisha had been going through an emotionally tough time after the separation from her long- term partner and her psychotherapist suggested some hypnotic sessions during these sessions Aisha has started vaguely recalling being fondled by her father as a baby while he was giving her baths memories of this type are referred to as:
Proves that only false allegations of sexual abuse are increased //
There have been studies on the use of anatomically detailed dolls as a props when questioning children who are suspected of having been victims of sexual abuse overall the research:
In some cases so called memories of past abuse have surfaced as a result of the -- of the alleged victim while under hypnosis or guided imagery.
inadmissible; child //
Hearsay testimony is generally ---- in court but most states do allow an exception to the hearsay rule for ---- victims
In a series of experiments replicating loftus research hyman and his colleagues set out to create false memories of fairly unusual past events the results of their studies show that again about --- of the participants had developed false recollections
When exposed to sexual abuse testimony given by children at trial it appears that jurors are ---- to believe young children compared to adolescents
Bearing witness to what someone else said outside of court is called:
According to research noted noted in the text, jurors that heard both adult hearsay witness and child testimony deemed the hearsay testimony
This is a technique designed to reduce biased questioning and elicit true responses from children.
What is the best description of the NICHD investigative interview protocol
continued unabated; slowed down considerably //
In the mid 1990s the hysteria of day care child abuse cases has -- while claims of having recovered memories of past sexual abuse have--
mentioning the abuse only to peers //
According to the text children who supposedly suffer from child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome CSAAS are likely to show behavioral symptoms that could also be evident in children misled into admitting such abuse the following symptoms are believed to be part of the CSAAS syndrome except:
uncomfortable feeling when someone has conflicting thoughts
oftentimes the post identification boost in an eyewitness confidence level about his or her testimony can be explained by cognitive dissonance which is an:
The witness degree of certainty about his or her memory of the event //
The Manson criteria emphasized by courts consist of five factors to be taken into account when evaluating eyewitness identification accuracy which criterion is the most problematic one according to the text
Lapses of attention are most likely to affect which stage of the process of memory work?
According to the text what we generally see and remember is impacted by what we expect to see. this tendency to maintain firmly held beliefs about a sequence of expected behaviors is refereed to as
According to a study completed by Morgan and his colleagues 2004 stress appears to have an effect on eyewitness identification. based on the study results the rate of correct identification was -- in low stress conditions
Cross racial identifications are generally --- accurate --- same race identifications
The tendency of people to be better able to recognize faces of those within their own racial group than those outside their racial group is referred to as the --- effect
When doing research on eyewitness memory social scientific often look at many factors factors that are outside the control of the legal system are refereed to as
9 months; increases dramatically
According to the text the cross race effect is present in a babies as young as -- old and -- from childhood to adulthood
the true criminal might not be
Bias reducing instructions are used to assist eyewitnesses to be accurate in their identification of a suspect an example of such instructions as noted in the text is telling the eyewitness that -- in the lineup or photo spread
variousobbb sounds encoded during memory formation are the easiest part to retrieve
in the reconstruction of memory it is not uncommon to find that distortions may take place at any stage the following statements about this process is incorrect
swore that she'd never seen Bobby Poole before, and that Ronald Cotton raped her.
When Jennifer Thompson saw her real rapist bobby Poole at Ronald cottons second trial she
According to a recent field experiment conducted by wells and colleagues real eyewitnesses to real crimes who actually choose someone out of a lineup choose the wrong person about --- of the time even when best practices in lineup procedures are used
The legal concept of whether an individual has the capacity to perform necessary personal or legal function is known as
according to research by grisso and his colleagues 2003 when it comes to competency to stand trial at approximately age ---- the differences in legal judgment understanding
bona fide doubt may also be refereed to as a --- doubt
Defense attorney, the judge and the prosecuting attorney.
which legal actors are ethically bound to assure that a defendant is competent to stand trial?
competency for being released
according to the text there are several types of legal competence. which of the following is not among them?
When they are a danger to self or others
courts can recommend forcible medication of defendants
cannot speak English
ester was born and raised in iran and her knowledge of an adversarial criminal justice system is very limited according to the current legal standards in the united states her competency to stand trial would only be affected if she
is competent to defend himself in court
in the us legal system the right to waive an attorney implies that the defendant
prison guards, nurses, and mental health professionals.
when performing competency evaluations within an institutional collateral sources of information can be gathered regarding the defendants behavior some of the individuals that might be able to provide this additional information include
transferred to adult court
according to the text all 50 states allow juveniles of a certain age to be --- when charged with serious crimes
does not know English well
competence to stand trial is most likely to be compromised if the accused:
it is very important to establish that the defendant is competent to plead guilty because the guilty plea means giving up the following constitutional rights except for the right to
defense ; by clear and convincing evidence
The insanity defense reform act idra of 1984 required that the --prove the insanity of the defendant at the time of the crime
No impact on their verdicts
research first completed by rita simon in 1967 and later replicated in multiple studies by finkel and his colleagues in the 1990s and 2000s found that when different sets of jurors are given different definitions of insanity based on legal terminology there is
another example of mistaken public views on what happens with NGRI defendants is a common idea that they get --- sentences that non- NGRI defendants in reality people who arre deemed legally insane often spend ---- time in custody than non- NGRI criminals convicted for similar crimes
a highly publicized 1978 trial in California brought up the influence of heavy ingestion of junk food on a persons mental state the defense of the accused Dan white was refereed to as the
the outcomes of high profile cases
for the most part changes in insanity law result from the public's reaction to
a guilty mind; a criminal act
mens rea refers to --- whereas actus reas refers to --
the psychiatric illnesses most commonly associated with successful insanity pleas include all of the following except;
legislators and judges
legal definitions of insanity are crafted by;
entirely abolished the insanity defense
when it comes to the issue of insanity defense, four states (Montana Utah Kansas and Idaho have;
most of what people believe about the insanity defense is mistaken for example the proportion of felony cases where the defendant uses the insanity defense is less than-- and when the insanity defense is used it is successful in about -- of those cases
people who sleep walk are actually acting out their dreams
which of the following statements are true?
previous sleepwalking is documented.
a sleepwalking defense is more likely to be successful when ---
at the -- level responsibility we are held responsible for consequences that we personally caused if a reasonable person could have predicted the consequence of their action
hediers level ---- seems to be most important in allocating punishments
symptoms of someone suffering from battered woman syndrome BMWS may include all of the following except
RTS testimony may bias the jury against the defendant
a judge would often refuse to allow experts to present information about RTS to the injury all of the following would be typical reasons for the judges decision except
Combat veterans; returning from the war in Vietnam victims of rape and severe physical abuse
while PTSD was originally formulated to describe the psychological symptoms of --- the category of people most likely to develop PTSD is --
The abuse was regular, and the victim felt scared even when the abuser was asleep
self defense can be used in court of law when a woman is facing charges as a result of killing her batterer however specific criteria need to be met to plead self defense. which of the following does not meet the requirements of self defense?
battered woman syndrome BWS
the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-5 contains --- in its classification of mental disorders
statistics noted in the text indicate that serious violence perpetrated by intimate partners is -- to happen against women
Marissa has been beaten by her husband on multiple occasions she has learned to anticipate her husbands impending violence by carefully observing minute signs of his moods and behaviors which of the following terms is used to describe this type of heightened attentiveness in battered women ?
one of the most criticized parts of the battered woman syndrome BWS is the -- component
how often did the woman call the police and what were the responses from the officers?
some experts argue that in battered woman cases expert testimony should focus on the social reality of the woman's situation rather than on her psychological reactions which of the following is not a question that such social agency framework SAF testimony would raise
Develop targeted interventions
The text indicates that one possible application of a useful batterer typology is to
not guilty by reason of temporary insanity.
Francine hughes was tried for murdering her abusing husband and was found
Susan's satisfaction level with other aspects of her marriage is relatively low..
According to the investment model Susan would be most likely to leave her abusive marriage if
Peremptory challenges; loses its legitimacy
if juries systematically exclude --- the legal system ---
peremptory challenges; to state their reason for rejection
law does not set a limit to the number of --- though they have to be approved by the judge and judges have ---
Jeremy has worked in a prison for 15 years and has been called to jury duty. He is to serve on a criminal case involving the shooting of a guard during a prison riot based on the definition of challenge for cause Jeremy would be a
least; read potential jurors Facebook profiles
while selecting a jury it is important for lawyers to figure out which jurors will be--- favorable to their case it is legally permissible for lawyers to --- to gather additional information
in a high profile case trial consultants may be hired. trial consultants use a -- approach to jury selection
beyond a reasonable doubt ;preponderance of the evidence.
in terms of the burden of proof in criminal cases the standard of proof for a person to be found guilty is --- whereas in civil trials the standard of proof is usually --
data collection; intuition
with regard to strategies for jury selection social scientists and lawyers appear to have different approaches which became especially evident in the OJ Simpson case social scientists rely on --whereas lawyers rely on--
according to the text when an attorney takes the opportunity to remove a potential juror it is refereed to as
unlimited; are at the discretion of the judge
in theory the number of challenges for cause is --- while peremptory challenges--
do not have a prior knowledge of the defendant
as opposed to early juries at the dawn of the united states modern-day juries consist of people who:
Nicole is a defense attorney handling a high profile case much rests with the decision of the jury in terms of damages that the defendant may be required to pay. to help in the process Nicole decides to pull together a group that matches the demographics of the actual jury and have them sit in the courtroom during trial and be exposed to the same evidence the actual jury would be seeing the group Nicole is assembling is known as :
when jurors change their minds because they are persuade by the compelling arguments of other jurors this phenomenon is also referred to as:
studies show that people somewhat consistently treat defendants of their own--- more leniently
unanimity is required by --- of the states in capital murder trials
regularly hangs out with gang members
Isaac is on trial for murder, and the evidence against him is not very strong the jury is most likely to reach a guilty verdict if they learn that Isaac
Inadmissible Evidence ; greater
when a judge dictates that certain evidence is to be ignored jurors often feel that their freedom to choose to consider all evidence is threatened reactance theory suggests that this may motivate the jurors to consider the ---- evidence to a ---- degree when contemplating a verdict
according to the text there are two models that describe the decision- making process of jury members these two models are known as ---- model and a --- model
the jurors understanding of complex evidence is just as good or maybe even better than the judges understanding
research evidence suggests that when judges and juries disagree all of the following is true except
most characteristics of a defendant do not seem to have any straightforward influence on a verdict among them are the following characteristics except;
Jurors have to leave their house and live in a hotel for the duration of the trial
juries are unusual groups of people performing unusual tasks. which of the following statements is incorrect about juries?
hand down a lenient sentence
interestingly if a defendant is severely injured in the course of committing a crime jurors are more likely to
differences in opinion among jury members often occur at this point various coalitions may develop and this may even lead to attacks against each other a common term for this phase of the deliberation process is
according to the text data on custody arrangements reveal that sole physical and legal custody is granted to the mother approximately ---- of the time
the non-custodial parent is more likely to pay child support on a regular basis
all of the following are noted in the text as benefits of joint legal custody except;
the syndrome coined by Richard Gardner that describes one parent attempting to include fear of the other parent in their children is called --- syndrome
exaggerate; faking good
psychologists become involved in cases that include child custody arrangements because psychological evaluation of one or both of the parents is either required or recommended in contrast to forensic evaluations in which individuals may feign psychological disturbance which is known as malingering in parental evaluations individuals are more likely to --- psychological problems which is know as
young children and all female children were placed with the mother
the tender years doctrine once prevailed as the standard for deciding child custody this rule dictated that
Is not recommended ; when hostility is high
joint legal custody --- in cases of high conflict relationships --- between parents
joint physical custody
some scholars have suggested that the child must spend the equivalent of two overnights a week for the custody to be considered shared this type of custody is also known as
parental authority to make decisions about important aspects of the child's life is referred to as
it would be hard for her to remain objective
Esther is a psychologist who has been working for the past year as a therapist with one of the parents currently going through a bitter divorce she would be ethically required to abstain from conducting a custody evaluation on behalf of the court in this case because
joint custody is the default arrangement
when it comes to child custody decisions Texas is the only state where;
sexism or gender bias ; vague
research has demonstrated that -- is more likely to influence decision making in custody cases when the guidelines for custody are --
20; civil commitment
according to the text, as of 2013 --- states and the federal government adopted sexually violent predator --- laws SVP laws
Leroy Hendricks; sexually violent predator civil commitment
--- was the first person to be subjected to the --- laws SVP laws
when evaluating risk assessment evidence it has been found that jurors usually find --- predictions more convincing research shows that ---- predictions are more accurate
an individual was punished twice for the same crime
in Kansas v. Hendricks 1977 the supreme court ruled that sexually violent predator civil commitment laws did NOT violate double jeopardy double jeopardy means that
paranoid schizophrenia; want to harm
threat/ control- override symptoms are common in people suffering from--- what leads to the symptoms is their common delusion that others --- them
svp laws deprive individuals of their constitutional rights to bear arms
the supreme court case of Kansas v. Hendricks 1997 has addressed several challenges about potential constitutional violations of SVP laws which of the following is not among these challenges?
incorrect; should still
in barefoot v. Estelle 1983 the american psychiatric association provided an amicus curiae brief stating that expert predictions of violence risk were--- two out of three times the supreme court held that experts-- provide their opinion in such cases
cannot; in line with scientific evidence
the courts decisions with regard to civil commitment laws tend to support the idea that psychological experts--- predict future violence ---
idk couldnt find it
the likelihood of continuous threat to society that experts predictions of risk are supposed to address in capital penalty cases is problematic all of the following are valid reasons for this except
a person might do in the future
involuntary civil commitment is based on what
--- prediction is a method that requires that relevant risk factors be statistically evaluated to calculate the probability of future violence
race or ethnicity
most hate crimes in the united states over the last three years have targeted victims based on their---
in 2017 most religiously motivated hate crimes targeted people of the --- faith
the term prejudice is used to refer to an --- while the term discrimination refers to a--
the Matthew Shepard murder in Laramie Wyoming spurred national interest in
r mead shumway
which of the following innocent people was not executed?
fewer than 1%
in terms of frequency it is noted in the text that --- of murders are executed in the united states
the process of death qualification excludes about a quarter to a third of potential jurors from serving on capital juries the excluded jurors are more likely to possess the following characteristics except;
money can be saved if a capital case defendant is eventually sentence to life in prison
when it comes to the financial cost of the death penalty the following statements is not true;
equates the death penalty with life imprisonment as an alternative punishment
politicians and conservative talk show hosts often state that most Americans favor the death penalty however this assertion
support; life imprisonment
it is often asserted that the majority of Americans --- the death penalty however if people are asked to compare the death penalty with an alternative of life imprisonment most respondents choose -- as a more acceptable punishment
interestingly there seems to be a tendency for an increase in murderers for a short while following an execution one possible explanation is that executions may desensitize people to killing this phenomenon is refereed to as the -- effect
misconduct of prosecutors
research on possible errors in death penalty cases has examined every capital case in the united states over a 22 year period Liebman et al 2000 it was found that 68% of death sentences were reversed because of serious errors at trial all of the following were found to be the sources of these errors except
help their citizens facing execution in the us
in protest of the death penalty many countries
interestingly research shows that when mock jurors understand the instructions there is no difference in the rate of death penalty recommendations based on race or ethnicity however when jurors do not fully comprehend the instructions there is a clear bias against
the victim died
in Kennedy v. Louisiana 2008 the supreme court ruled that the death penalty should be applied to rapists even to child rapists unless
All death sentences are reviewed by state supreme courts
following Gregg v. Georgia and its companion cases all death sentences are
which of these is most commonly associated with convictions of the innocent?
assessing the scientific validity of potential testimony
in consideration of scientific testimony gate keeping in the legal sense includes
roles that psychologists may play in the legal system include the following
not to work and even backfire
get tough interventions like scared straight and boot camps have been found
When assessing a mentally ill defendant for potential risk of violence.
the knowledge and skills of cognitive psychologists might be most relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
truth will emerge as a result of conflict between opposing sides
The basis of the adversarial legal system is the belief that
social science research should be embraced
legal realism as expressed by karls llewllyn in the 1920s-1930s embodied all of the following views except
When assessing a mentally ill defendant for potential risk of violence.
the knowledge and skills of clinical psychologists might be most relevant for the legal system in which one of these cases?
Putting the burden of decisions about allowing expert testimony on trial judges
the Daubert trilogy of cases impacts trial courts by
for a reasonable evaluation of the scientific validity of a potential expert testimony one needs to have sufficient understanding of
which of the following is not likely to lead to a false confession?
there are several vulnerabilities to making a false confession the most dangerous vulnerability according to the text is
innocent; nothing to hide
daniela was -- and she waived her Miranda rights during her arrest she decided to tell the police her side of the story without waiting for an attorney the most likely reason she did that is because she has
imprisoning the suspects kids
before the 1930s an interrogator in the united states would be likely to use all of the following actions to elicit confessions except
police are very careful in explaining to suspects their rights
all of the following are possible explanations for why suspects waive their Miranda rights except
internalized coerced confession
After an intense interrogation process, Matthew became convinced that he robbed the store since all physical evidence pointed at him. This form of false confession is called an
Research by Kassin and his colleagues has shown that even when had no problem recognizing that a confession was coerced, they still voted more often.
fundamental attribution error
The tendency to hold an individual's dispositional causes such as personality responsible for his or her behavior is referred to as the:
After the publication of the Report on Lawlessness in Law Enforcement in 1931, legislative changes resulted in the move from abuse.
instrumental coerced confession
Because of a long, exhausting interrogation, Kathryn just wanted the questioning to stop, so she confessed to the crime knowing that she did not commit it. This ---type of confession is called an:
the polygraph may be used as a -- tactic to evoke --
averting gaze or avoiding eye contact
the following behavioral clues are a reliable indicator that the person is lying
among the techniques looking at brain activity patterns --- is better able to locate the precise area of the brain activity whereas --- is better able to determine the timing of the activity
polygraph evidence an only be used in criminal but not civil cases
which of the following statements correctly reflects the current legal status of the polygraph
reduced; were not
according to a study conducted by honts and colleagues 1994 the use of countermeasures --- the decision of guilt suspects by 50% and the examiners -- able to tell the suspects were manipulating their own arousal patterns
Criteria Based Content Analysis
the technique that uses systematic analysis of written statements to assess the credibility of accounts related to a particular event is called
fidgeting and avoiding eye contact are reliable clues that the person is lying
based on research studies of peoples abilities in lie detection the following statement is true
the comparison question test posits that guilty individuals react more strongly to ---- questions whereas innocent individuals react more strongly to -- questions
People who are accurate in detecting lies by members of their own culture are not necessarily
accurate in detecting lies by members of other cultures.
according to the bella depaulos scientific review article on lie spotting
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