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HDFS 225 Chapter Two
Terms in this set (39)
In Piaget's cognitive theory, the process of changing a schema to make it a better match to reality.
Begins with the single reflexes at birth and continues as a child gradually modifies behaviors to meet environmental demands.
In Piaget's cognitive theory, the process of taking in new information and interpreting it in such a way that it conforms to a currently held model of the world.
The application of learning theory and experimental psychology to alter behavior.
The study of genes that cause individuals within a species to exhibit different behaviors.
A psychological theory that focuses on observable behavior-what people do and say- and on how their environment shapes their development across the life span.
In Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory, the changes within the individual and changes in the environment across time, as well as the relationship between these two processes.
A type of learning in which a new, previously neutral stimulus, such as a bell, comes to elicit a response, such as salivation, by repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus, such as food.
The act or process of knowing, including understanding and reasoning.
The process of observing other people and learning new responses or behaviors without first having had the opportunity to make the responses oneself.
Sequential periods in the growth or maturation of an individual's ability to think, to gain knowledge, and to be aware of the self and the environment.
A theory that attempts to explain how we go about representing, organizing, treating, and transforming information as we modify our behavior.
Continuum of Indirectness
The notion that the role played by hereditary factors is more central in some aspects of development than in others.
For the developing embryo, the time of development when each organ and structure is most vulnerable to damaging influences. Also a relatively short period of time in which specific development or imprinting usually takes place.
An approach to studying behavior in which psychologists select, from the various theories and models, those aspects that provide the best fit for the descriptive and analytical task at hand.
Bronfenbrenner's system of understanding development, according to which the study of developmental influences must include the person's interaction with the environment, the person's changing physical and social settings. The relationship among those settings, and how the entire process is affected by the society in which the settings are embedded.
According to Erikson, the principle that each part of the personality has a particular range of time in the life span when it must develop if it is going to develop at all.
In Piaget's theory, the result of balance between the processes of assimilation and accommodation.
The study of the behavior patterns of organisms from a biological perspective.
A newer discipline that investigates what mental functions, behaviors, and traits are innate, or instinctive. Researchers study how human's physical body, organs, and mind and cognition have been shaped, or have adapted, over time from biological and environmental/ cultural influences.
According to psychoanalytic theory, the tendency to stay at a particular psychosexual stage of development.
Hierarchy of Needs
A key concept of Abraham Maslow's humanistic theory, which indicates that basic needs must be met before self-development and self-esteem needs can be fulfilled.
The humanistic approach according to which the human condition must be viewed in its totality, and each person is seen as a whole rather than as a mere collection of physical, social, and psychological components.
A psychological theory deriving from Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, and others, proposing that humans are different from all other organisms in that they actively intervene in the course of events to control their destinies and shape the world around them.
A process of attachment that occurs only during a relatively short period and is so resistant to change that the behavior appears to be innate.
Bandura's cognitive learning theory that discrete mental operations based on rules and strategies become more sophisticated as a child develops.
A type of learning in which the consequences of a behavior alter the strength of that behavior.
The determination of traits by a large number of genes in combination, rather than by a single gene. Examples include personality, intelligences, aptitudes, and abilities.
Theory based on Freud's view that personality is fashioned progressively as the individual passes through various psychosexual stages of development.
The stages of personality development that Freud believed all human beings pass through: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital.
An individual's development within a social context over the life course.
One event's strengthening the probability of another event's occurrence. A concept of behavioral theory popularized by B. F. Skinner
Biologically preadapted behaviors and features in infants that activate parenting
A term that behavioral theorists use to break down behavior into units.
Piaget's term for mental structures that people construct to deal with events in their environment.
Maslow's concept form humanistic psychology that each person needs to fulfill his or her unique potential to the greatest extent possible.
The theory that such psychological functions as thinking, reasoning, and remembering are facilitated through language and anchored in the child's interpersonal relationships.
A term used by behavioral theorists to break down the environment into units.
A set of interrelated statements intended to explain a class of events.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
HDFS 225 Chapter Four
HDFS 225 Chapter One
HDFS 225 Chapter Three
HDFS 225 Chapter Five
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