APUSH Vocab 8
Unit 4 Set 1
Terms in this set (49)
Second Bank of the U.S.
A national bank chartered by Congress in 1816 with extensive regulatory powers over currency and credit; modeled after Hamilton's original bank and fixing Revolutionary War debt. Chartered as part of Clay's American system.
Tariff of 1816
Proposed by Madison. It taxed imports in order to increase the price of foreign goods and thereby limit their price advantage. Northeasterners welcomed this, but Southerns and Westerns were reluctant.
Bonus Bill Veto
(March, 1817) Madison vetoed John C. Calhoun's Bonus Bill, which would have used the bonus money paid to the government by the Second National Bank to build roads and canals. Madison believed in strict interpretation, and using federal money for internal improvements is not a power granted to the federal government in the Constitution.
(1817) Agreement between the U.S. and Britain (which controlled Canada at that time) for mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes. Later expanded to an unarmed U.S.-Canada border.
Convention of 1818
Britain and the United States agreed to the 49th parallel as the northern boundary of the Louisiana Territory between Lake of the Woods and the Rocky Mountains. The two nations also agreed to joint occupation of the Oregon country for ten years. Part of nationalistic foreign policy under Monroe.
Panic of 1819
1st major financial panic since the Constitution was ratified; marked the end of economic expansion and featured deflation (value of US money going down), depression, bank failures, foreclosures on western farms, unemployment, a slump in agriculture and manufacturing, and overcrowded debtor's prisons. Also risky lending practices of the state and local banks led to overspeculation on lands in west- the national bank tightened its credit lending policies and eventually forced these state and local banks to foreclose mortgages on farms, which resulted in bankruptcies and prisons full of debtors. Also resulted in closure of many state banks.
Jackson in Florida
(1817) The Seminole Indians in Florida, encouraged by the Spanish, launched a series of raids into the U.S. President J. Q. Adams ordered Andrew Jackson, whose troops were on the U.S./Florida border, to seize Spanish forts in northern Florida. Jackson's successful attacks convinced the Spanish that they could not defend Florida against the U.S.
Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis)
(1817) It was an agreement between Spain and the U.S. that gave west Florida to the U.S. It also established the border between the U.S. and New Spain (present day Mexico). Since it handled the ongoing border dispute, it is considered a win for American diplomacy. Part of nationalistic foreign policy under Monroe.
(1823) Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
"Era of Good Feelings"
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward- 1819
This case denied that states could not alter a school's charters without the school's consent. More importantly, it established that states may not interfere with private contracts.
McCulloch vs. Maryland- 1819
The state of Maryland taxed banknotes produced by the Bank of the United States, claiming that the Bank was unconstitutional. Using implied powers, Marshall countered that the Bank was constitutional and ruled that Maryland was forbidden from taxing the Bank. This further asserted federal power and demonstrated that states could not tax any federal branch operating within state boundaries because "the power to tax is the power to destroy."
Gibbons vs. Ogden- 1824
Supreme court decision that ruled that the constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed.
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia- 1831
Ruled that the Cherokee were entitled to land, but were not a separate republic. This was a response to Georgia' failure to recognize the Cherokees despite their best assimilation efforts and also to Georgia's continued efforts to take Cherokee land.
Worcester vs. Georgia- 1832
Ruled that the Cherokee nation was a distinct political community and that the rules of Georgia do not apply--essentially established a "reservation" (although such language wasn't used).
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Clay's American System
Proposed after the War of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and rechartering the national bank.
A painter/engineer who got financial backing to build a powerful steam engine (Clermont). Skeptics called it ''Fulton's Folly''. But in 1807 the boat made the 150 mile run from New York City up the Hudson River to Albany in 32 hours. Within a few years he changed all of America's navigable streams into two-way arteries and forever changed the way the West and the South could transport their goods. Part of the Market (or Industrial) Revolution in US.
An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged.
19th-century mills for the manufacture of cloth, located in Massachusetts, that mainly employed young women who could then use the money to send home.
Famous American politician and orator. He participated in the "Battle of the Giants" against fellow Senator Robert Hayne. He provided a strong defense of centralized power and argue that it was un-American to support the supremacy of states' rights over those of the federal government.
National (Cumberland) Road
The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West. This project was undertaken by the states because Monroe vetoed it, citing the unconstitutionality behind federally funded internal improvements.
Henry Clay developed a plan for profitable home markets called the American System in 1824. It enforced a protective tariff to get funding for transportation improvements. These improvements would be the construction of better roads and canals. This would allow industrialization to prosper since the raw materials of the South and West could easily and inexpensively get to the North and East to be manufactured. The manufactured goods could then be shipped back out to the South and West. Under Monroe, internal improvements had to be made by the states b/c Monroe argued that federally funded internal improvements were unconstitutional. Under Jackson, however, federally funded improvements, with the exception of the Maysville Road Bill, were generally passed.
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Tariff of Abomination
(1828) Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. This tariff was accidentally passed by the Jacksonians in an attempt to embarass JQA, and it was given this name by John C. Calhoun, the VP under JQA.
Vice President Calhoun
He publicly wrote the widely read South Carolina Exposition and Protest, in which he made his argument that the Tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional. He argued that adversely affected states had the right to nullify, or override, the law, within their borders. In 1832, he convinced the South Carolina legislature to nullify the federal tariff acts of 1828 and 1832.
"Clinton's Big Ditch" that transformed transportation and economic life across the Great Lakes region from Buffalo to Chicago
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme. During this period, more offices became elective, voter restrictions were reduced or eliminated, and popular participation in politics increased. The Democratic Party, led by Jackson, appealed to the new body of voters by stressing the belief in rotation in office, economy in government, governmental response to popular demands and decentralization of power.
Jackson created a system of political patronage under which many of his supporters and members of the Democratic Party were chosen for federal office and were placed in his "Kitchen Cabinet" and real cabinet. Many of these individuals were completely unqualified.
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness, and they later joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
A normally closed meeting of a political or legislative group to select candidates, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters.
National Nominating Conventions
System where delegates from the states gathered to decide on the party's presidential nominee. Political power would come from the people rather then from elite political institutions.
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures
Cherokee Indian Removal
Minority of the Cherokee, despite protest of the majority, surrendered Georgia land in 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838-1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to the Oklahoma Indian Country. Many died on the trail known as the "Trail of Tears"
Whigs: Origins, Policies
Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin.
Maysville Road Veto
(1830) It proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
As President of the Second Bank of the United States, this man occupied a position of power and responsibility that propelled him to the forefront of Jacksonian politics in the 1830s. He, along with others who regarded the bank as a necessity, realized the threat posed by the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828. Jackson was bitterly opposed to the national bank, believing that it was an unconstitutional, elitist institution that bred inequalities among the people. A bitterly divisive issue, the rechartering of the bank dominated political discussion for most of the 1830s, and for many, this man became a symbol of all for which the bank stood. After Jackson's reelection, the Second Bank of the United States was doomed.
Veto of Bank Re-Charter Bill
With this action, Jackson expanded presidential power tremendously
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
An argument between Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne, about the issue of states' rights versus national power. Webster said that Hayne was a challenge to the integrity of the Union. Hayne responded with a defense of the theory of nullification. Webster then spent two full afternoons delivering what became known as his "Second Reply to Hayne." He concluded with the ringing appeal: "Liberty and Union, now and for ever, one and inseparable."
Peggy Eaton Affair
A social scandal where many wealthy cabinet member's wives snubbed the socially unacceptable Peggy Eaton, wife of John Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons because his late wife had suffered from public denunciations, and since Calhoun's wife had been the main mover of the rumor mill on Peggy Eaton, Jackson became very angry with Calhoun. In response to this and unrelated political differences of opinion, Calhoun resigned.
Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
Henry Clay devised this act which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise. Clay did this to calm Jackson, who wanted to declare martial law in South Carolina.
(1833) It authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Specie Circular- 1836
Issued by President Jackson on July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic resulted. Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Independent Treasury System
Meant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.
Election of 1840
This election was characterized by the mudslinging or the attack on each others reputation. William Henry Harrison wins election over Martin Van Buren but soon died.
Tariff of 1842
A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its cost.
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