A term used to describe the network of trade that linked parts of the pre -Columbi an Americas; although less intense and complete than the Afro-Eurasian trade networks, this web nonetheless provided a means of exchange for luxury goods and ideas over large areas
The largest religious structure in the premodern world, construction began on this temple located in modern Cambodia in the early 1100s C.E. It was built to express a Hindu understanding of the cosmos, centered on a mythical Mt Meru, the home of the gods in Hindu tradition
Bubonic plague- Black Death
The name given to the massive epidemic that swept Eurasia in the fourteenth century C.E.; it may have been bubonic plague, anthrax, or a collection of epidemic diseases
The largest Buddhist monument ever built, Borobudur is a mountainous ten-level monument with an elaborate carving program, probably built in the ninth century C.E. by the Sailendras rulers of central Java; it is an outstanding example of cultural exchange and syncretism
A highly fatal disease transmitted by fleas; it devastated the Mediterranean world between 534 and 750 C.E. and again in the period 1346-1350 C.E.
Ghana, Mali, Songhay
A series of important states that developed in western and central Sudan in the period 500-1600 C.E. in response to the economic opportunities of trans -Saharan trade (especially control of gold production)
A powerful state in the African interior that apparently emerged from the growing trade in gold to the East African coast; flourished between 1250 and 1350 C.E.
A famous Muslim traveler who visited much of the Islamic world in the fourteenth century and wrote a major account of what he saw
Indian Ocean trading network
The world's largest sea-based system of communication and exchange before 1500 C.E., Indian Ocean commerce stretched from southern China to eastern Africa and included not only the exchange of luxury and bulk goods but also the exchange of ideas and crops
A nomadic people who controlled much of northern China in the third and fourth centuries; many converted to Buddhism
Speakers of Austronesian languages from what is now Indonesia who became major traders in Southeast Asia and Madagascar
Alternating wind currents that blew eastward across the Indian Ocean in the summer and westward in the winter, facilitating trade
Oasis cities of Central Asia
Cities such as Merv, Samarkand, Khotan, and Dunhuang that became centers of trans-Eurasian trade
Professional merchants among the Aztecs
A kingdom of central Java that flourished from the eighth century to the tenth century C.E.; noted for being deeply influenced by Indian culture
A term used to describe the routes of the trans -Sahara trade in Africa
Land-based trade routes that linked Eurasia
A Malay kingdom that dominated the Straits of Malacca between 670 and 1025 C.E.; noted for its creation of a native/Indian hybrid culture
From the Arabic term for "land of black people," a large region of West Africa that became part of a major exchange circuit
An East African civilization that emerged in the eighth century C.E. from a blending of Bantu, Islamic, and other Indian Ocean trade elements
Civilizations that emerged between 500 and 1500 C.E. and were typified by intensifying trade networks
A well-born, wealthy merchant and seaman of Norwegian Viking background, Karlsfeni led an unscuccessful expedition to establish a colony on the coast of what is now Newfoundland, Canada, in the early eleventh century C.E.
Trans-Saharan slave trade
A fairly small-scale trade that developed in the twelfth century C.E., exporting West African slaves captured in raids across the Sahara for sale mostly as household servants in Islamic North Africa; the difficulty of travel across the desert limited the scope of this trade
a city on the silk road that transmitted Mahayana Buddhism to China; by the fourth century C.E., a sizable Buddhist community had emerged at Dunhuang in western China; Buddhists built hundreds of cave temples in the vicinity of Dunhuang and decorated them with murals depicting events in the lives of the Buddha and the boddhisatvas; missions supported by establishments such as those at Dunhuang helped Buddhism to establish a foothold in China
After being domesticated and spread beyond it's origin point, the Arabian camel became the primary mode of transportation in the Middle East and along trade routes, taking over the role of the on and wheeled vehicles. Before the camel, trade with the Sahara was a barrier to their culture and goods.
was a major North American chiefdom that was the center of a widespread trading network that had canoes and rivers connecting it to other societies.
Small Indian sailboats used in the Indian Ocean made from teak planks laid edge to edge, fastened together with coconut fiber twine, and caulked to prevent leaking. Used for trade on the Indian Ocean. 1000-1500