Chapter 15: Tropical Africa and Asia (By:Eileen Flood)
Terms in this set (41)
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year-round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other factors.
Major winds in the Indian Ocean that blew into India for half the year, and blew away from India for the other half. Helped facilitate trade in the Indian Ocean.
Defined by the interactions between organisms.
Name Muslim writers used for the land south of the Sahara desert, it translates to "land of the blacks".
Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull.
A language in East Africa that is a combination of Bantu and Arabic languages.
A Persian-influenced literary form of Hindi written in Arabic characters and used as a literary language since the 1300s.
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
Africa's third-longest, it flows in a great clockwise arc through Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Nigeria before entering the Gulf of Guinea. The Mali and Songhai Empires were centered on it.
A river in South Asia that flows from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea.
The sacred river in India used by devotees in prayer and rituals.
A major river that runs from southern China through Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River; from the Arabic sawahil, meaning 'shores.'
Strait of Malacca
Body of water connecting the Indian and Pacific Ocean near Singapore.
An African city on the coast that adopted the Muslim religion and made a great living trading in the Indian Ocean. Speaks Swahili today, and is the capital of Somalia.
City-state on the east coast of Africa that exported gold across the Indian Ocean.
Seaport city in Yemen, located by the eastern Red Sea area.
Southwest coast of India, epicenter of spice trade.
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca.
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning.
Capital at Delhi; Muslims for Turkey and central Asia invaded India; major cultural diffusion.
West African kingdom (13th-15th cent.) founded by Sundiasta in the 13th century; it reached its peak during reign of Mansa Musa.
Islamic Africa's most important state located around Lake Chad, became an important center of Islamic learning.
Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing; the inhabitants are called Gujarati.
Established on the Deccan Plateau in the mid-14th century after Muslin nobles challenged the sultan's authority. Wanted to balance Muslim domination with the practical policies of incorporating Hindu leaders into govt. Married Hindu wives.
Formed when the Hindu states of south India united to defend against the southward push of the Bahmani armies. At its height controllled Ceylon and rich trading ports on both coasts of south India. Hired Muslim horsemen and archers to strenghten their military and formed an alliance with Muslim-ruled state of Gujarat.
A powerful state in the African interior that apparently emerged from the growing trade in gold to the East African coast; flourished between 1250 and 1350 C.E.
Muhammad ibn Ab-dullah ibn Battuta
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
The founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes.
Mansa Kankan Musa
Ruler of Mali. His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Successor of Mansa Musa, praised by Ibn Battuta: less injustice, safety in land and passage of trade, more equality.
Started the Delhi Sultanate. A muslim invader that expanded his rule in India and conquered Hindu princes and chiefs. He secured offical recognition of the Delhi Sultanate as a Muslim state by the caliph of Baghdad.
Daughter of Iltutmish, ruled well, dressed like a man, rode at head of troops.
Mansa Musa's pilgrimage
He made a pilgrimage because it is a requirement for a Muslim to do. He had to go on the Hajj. Brought Timbuktu goods, knowledge and ideas to exchange. Brought back books and teachers. Stronger trade ties between Mali and other Muslim nations was the effect of this.
What is a tropical environment? Explain the different ecosystems in the tropical areas of Africa and Asia and what climatic factors control them.
Tropical zone (Dry and Wet) falls between the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south. While those parts of the tropics such as coastal West Africa, west-central Africa, and southern India get abundant rainfall, there is also an arid zone extending across northern Africa (the Sahara) and northwest India, and another arid zone in southwestern Africa. Altitude also affects climate, with high-altitude mountain ranges and plateaus having cooler weather and shorter growing seasons than the low-altitude coastal plains and river valleys. Major rivers bring water from these mountains to other areas.
Why were metalworking and food-producing systems important to tropical peoples?
Food-producing systems were important because of the uneven rainfall. Crops weren't guaranteed every year, so they had to have a system. Metalworking was important for the manufacturing of tools, weapons, and decorative objects, and that it permitted greater adaptation to the tropical environment. Iron, copper, and gold were the most used.
Outline events of the arrival of Islam into India.
The successive waves of Muslim armies penetrating into India followed much the same pattern. Leaders such as Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Tughluq expanded Muslim political domains without altering the religious or social fabric of Indian society. Because pre-Islamic India was entirely based on a caste system in which society was broken into separate parts, conversion to Islam happened in a step-by-step process. Often, entire castes would convert to Islam at a time. Buddhism, which was once very popular in the subcontinent, slowly died out under Muslim rule. Traditionally, when people wanted to escape the caste system, they would move to the major population centers and convert to Buddhism. When Islam became an option, however, people began to convert to Islam instead of Buddhism, while still leaving the caste system.
Why was the Indian Ocean trade important and how did it develop? What technologies made it a success? Did Islam play a role? etc.
The Indian Ocean trade was the richest trade of it's time. It developed through the success of African, Asia, and European areas. With that success, there became a demand for luxuries, such as jewelry and books. Technology advancements such as dhows and junks allowed bigger cargoes, which meant more goods going farther distances. It lead to rapid Muslim expansion, since it brought together a variety of people and ideas, voluntarily through trade. Peoples had to cooperate for successful trade, uniting East Asia and Europe along with many other regions.
How and why did the roles and status of tropical women change between 1200 and 1500?
Women in the tropics played an important role through taking care of the children, preparing food, working on the farm,and etc.
However, the status of women was determined by the status of her father, husband, or owner. In Africa, women did not veil or seclude themselves as in the Middle East but adapted the custom to their own culture. In India, the tradition of sati, or widow burning, became optional.
What were three major factors that caused social and cultural changes in the lives of the tropical peoples form 1200 to 1500?
Three primary influences are primarily state growth, commercial expansion, and the spread of Islam. The trade networks caused success in these states, leading to a widening class differences among tropical peoples, as well as dramatic changes in architecture and education. There were changes in women's roles and the expansion of slavery. The spread of Islam to the tropical regions of Asia and Africa through peaceful penetration, as well as through warfare in India, impacted architecture, math, science, literacy, and social traditions.
The people who lived in the tropical regions of Africa and Asia both affected and were affected by their natural environments. In what ways were those people shaped by their environments? In what ways did they participate in actively shaping their environments?
Diverse ecosystems in tropical regions forced people to both adapt to and modify their environment. For example, some groups adapted by relying on wild food, while others raised domesticated plants and animals. Conditions vary such as rainfall accumulation and temperate zone. Pastoral peoples thrived in arid areas unsuited to agriculture; farmers concentrated on agriculture in places where disease prohibited the raising of livestock.