Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. threatened by competition.
1851, divided the tribes so easier to control; forced the tribes to scattered. whites could have the most desirable land
dawes severalty act
(1887) Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm /assimilate. uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
frederick jackson turner
"The Significance of the Frontier in American History": American needed a frontier. less opportunity
George A. Custer
Discovered gold in Black Hills of South Dakota. Cavalry destroy by the Sioux at Little Big Horn.
A chief of the Apaches. resist encroachments in the Southwest for fifteen years. captured in 1886.
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
(1876) Battle during which the Sioux Tribe defeated the U.S. Army forces led by George A. Custer. Montana
rocky mountain school
artistic school. Type of art was born here that romanticized the ruggedness of the West.
1893 theory of Federick Jackson Turner that claimed that the frontier had played a key role in forming the American character. "safety valve"
American federation of labor
1886; Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, against Knights of Labor, non-violent.
In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.
eugene v debs
president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. organized the Pullman Strike and Social Democratic party.
frederick winslow taylor
"Taylorism" - less skilled worker, more employer control, like assembly line
bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers' unions. knights of labor decline
henry clay frick
Carnegie's cheif lieutenant, He made several wage cuts at the homestead plant causing the homestead strike. pinkerton and troops involved
(1863-1947) he was an American businessman, the founder of Ford Motor, modern assembly lines
wrote Progress and Poverty, in which he said limited land and a growing population artifically raised property values, enriching landowners. want single tax
Strike at Andrew Carnegie's steel plant in which Pinkerton detectives clashed with steel workers. wage cuts
Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
john peter altgeld
Governor of Illinois. want improve child labor and work safety laws. He resisted calls to break up the Pullman Strike and pardoned three men convicted in the Haymarket bombing.
knights of labor
1st effort ofNational union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
An active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania coal fields. poor working conditions. violent
national labor union
1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, attempt to unite all laborers
Chicago, Pullman cut wages w/out lower rents in the "company town". Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs jailed. nothing achieved
creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
A group of social realists who painted scenes of everyday life in poor, urban neighborhoods
"The Awakening," oppressive of traditional marriage. public abuse. young wife leave family
NY political machine that primarily w/support from the city's immigrants, notorious boss tweed
American naturalist writer. helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. spur change
william m tweed
Boss Tweed, head of Tammy Hall- NY powerful Democratic political machine 1868. He led the Tweed Ring, a group of corrupt politicians, in defrauding the city. jailed
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
(1900) civil government for Puerto Rico, which was neither fully american nor fully independant. tariff on Puerto Rican products coming into the US.
Movement for using silver in all aspects of currency. Not adopted because all other countries used a gold standard.
Rivals of the Stalwarts; Republican political machine led by James Blaine; were against the spoils system
Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.
open door policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, ALL nations have equal opportunities to trade in China.
1) Cuba makes no treaty 2) can't borrow money 3)US can get involved with Cuba affairs 4)US has navy there
panic of 1893
due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission. fed employee can't be forced to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite
sherman antitrust act
1890 - A federal law opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade.
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
"Patrons of Husbandry", to allow farmers to discuss farm problems and to socialize. want government ownership of railroads
william jennings bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. "cross of gold"