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Marketing Short Answers

Terms in this set (61)

The Internet links individuals and businesses of all types to each other. The Internet allows firms access to exciting new market spaces. The consumer love affair with digital and mobile technology makes it fertile ground for marketers trying to engage customers. Digital and social media marketing involves using digital marketing tools such as Web sites, social media, mobile ads and apps, online video, e-mail, blogs, and other digital platforms that engage consumers anywhere, anytime via their computers, smartphones, tablets, Internet-ready TVs, and other digital devices. At the most basic level, marketers set up company and brand Web sites that provide information and promote the company's products. Many of these sites also serve as online brand communities, where customers can congregate and exchange brand-related interests and information. The social media provide exciting opportunities to extend customer engagement and get people talking about a brand. Nearly 90 percent of all U.S. companies now use social media as part of their marketing mixes. Mobile marketing is perhaps the fastest-growing digital marketing platform. Smartphones are ever-present, always on, finely targeted, and highly personal. This makes them ideal for engaging customers anytime, anywhere as they move through the buying process. For example, Starbucks customers can use their mobile devices for everything from finding the nearest Starbucks and learning about new products to placing and paying for orders.
The most common form of marketing organization is the functional organization. Under a functional organization, different marketing activities are headed by a functional specialist — a sales manager, an advertising manager, a marketing research manager, a customer-service manager, or a new product manager. As ToyTrain is based only in the United States, a functional organization may be appropriate if marketing strategies and messages need to be consistent across the region. Under a geographic organization, sales and marketing people are assigned to specific countries, regions, and districts. A company that sells across a country could benefit from a geographic organization. As ToyTrain sells products across the country, organizing its sales and marketing personnel by region may also be appropriate. Under a product management organization, a product manager develops and implements a complete strategy and marketing program for a specific product or brand. Unless the company has a few standout brands, this system will not benefit it as much as other methods. Under a market or customer management organization, the company is organized around the needs of specific customer segments. In firms that use this organization, one product line is sold to many different types of markets and customers that have different needs and preferences. ToyTrain could use this method and organize its departments according to the age groups of the children it caters to and the types of toys suitable for each group.
Word-of-mouth influence can have a powerful impact on consumer buying behavior. The personal words and recommendations of trusted friends, associates, and other consumers tend to be more credible than those coming from commercial sources. Most word-of-mouth influence happens naturally through chatting about a brand they use or feel strongly about. Marketers can help to create positive conversations about their brands. Marketers of brands subjected to strong group influence must figure out how to reach opinion leaders, who exert social influence on others. Marketers try to identify opinion leaders for their products and direct marketing efforts toward them. Buzz marketing involves enlisting or even creating opinion leaders to serve as "brand ambassadors" who spread the word about a company's products. For example, Mercedes-Benz wanted get more people talking about its all-new, soon-to-be-launched 2014 CLA model, priced at $29,900 and aimed at getting a new generation of younger consumers into the Mercedes brand. So it challenged five of Instagram's most influential photographers to each spend five days behind the wheel of a CLA, documenting their journeys in photos shared via Instagram. The photographer who got the most "likes" got to keep the CLA. The short campaign really got people buzzing about the car, earning 87 million social media impressions and more than 2 million likes. Ninety percent of the social conversation was positive. And when Mercedes launched the CLA the following month, it broke sales records. Many companies now create brand ambassador programs in an attempt to turn influential but everyday customers into brand evangelists.
a) Materials and parts include raw materials as well as manufactured materials and parts. Raw materials consist of farm products (wheat, cotton) and natural products (lumber, crude petroleum, iron ore). Manufactured materials and parts consist of component materials (iron, yarn, cement, wires) and component parts (small motors, tires, castings). Most manufactured materials and parts are sold directly to industrial users.
b) Capital items are industrial products that aid in the buyer's production or operations, including installations and accessory equipment. Installations are major purchases such as buildings (factories, offices) and fixed equipment (generators, drill presses, large computer systems, elevators). Accessory equipment includes portable factory equipment and tools (hand tools, lift trucks) and office equipment (computers, fax machines, desks). These types of equipment have shorter lives than do installations and simply aid in the production process.
c) The final group of industrial products is supplies and services. Supplies include operating supplies (lubricants, coal, paper, pencils) and repair and maintenance items (paint, nails, brooms). Supplies are the convenience products of the industrial field because they are usually purchased with a minimum of effort or comparison. Business services include maintenance and repair services (window cleaning, computer repair) and business advisory services (legal, management consulting, advertising). Such services are usually supplied under contract.
For buyers, direct and digital marketing are convenient, easy, and private. They give buyers anywhere, anytime access to an almost unlimited assortment of goods and a wealth of products and buying information. Through direct marketing, buyers can interact with sellers by phone or on the seller's Web site or app to create exactly the configuration of information, products, or services they want and then order them on the spot. Finally, for consumers who want it, digital marketing through online, mobile, and social media provides a sense of brand engagement and community — a place to share brand information and experiences with other brand fans. For sellers, direct marketing often provides a low-cost, efficient, speedy alternative for reaching their markets. Today's direct marketers can target small groups or individual customers. Because of the one-to-one nature of direct marketing, companies can interact with customers by phone or online, learn more about their needs, and personalize products and services to specific customer tastes. In turn, customers can ask questions and volunteer feedback. Direct and digital marketing also offer sellers greater flexibility. They let marketers make ongoing adjustments to prices and programs, or make immediate, timely, and personal announcements and offers. Especially in today's digital environment, direct marketing is a powerful tool for moving customers through the buying process and for building customer engagement, community, and relationships. The new direct marketing tools provide rich opportunities for building close, personalized, interactive customer relationships.
Critics have charged that the marketing system urges too much interest in material possessions, and that America's love affair with worldly possessions is not sustainable. Too often, people are judged by what they own rather than by who they are. The critics do not view this interest in material things as a natural state of mind but rather as a matter of false wants created by marketing. Marketers, they claim, stimulate people's desires for goods and create materialistic models of the good life. Thus, marketers have created an endless cycle of mass consumption based on a distorted interpretation of the "American Dream."

Business has also been accused of overselling private goods at the expense of public goods. As private goods increase, they require more public services that are usually not forthcoming. For example, private automobile ownership (private good) requires highways, traffic control, parking spaces, and police services (public goods). The overselling of private goods results in social costs.

Critics also charge the marketing system with creating cultural pollution. They feel our senses are being constantly assaulted by marketing and advertising. Commercials interrupt serious programs; pages of ads obscure magazines; billboards mar beautiful scenery; spam fills our e-mail inboxes; flashing display ads intrude on our online and mobile screens. What's more, the critics claim, these interruptions continually pollute people's minds with messages of materialism, sex, power, or status.