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BTEC First Health and Social care- Unit 1
Unit 1: Human Lifespan Development- BTEC First Health and Social care
Terms in this set (96)
Life stages ?
Life stages are the number of distinct phases people pass through during their lives.
The six (6) life stages ?
Infancy, Early childhood, Adolescence, Early Adulthood, Middle Adulthood and Late Adulthood
Age range of Infancy ?
0 - 2 years old
Age range of Early childhood ?
3-8 years old
Age range of Adolescence ?
Age range of Early adulthood ?
19-45 years old
Age range of Middle adulthood ?
45- 65 years old
Age range of Late adulthood ?
65 years old and over
Physical, Intellectual, Emotional and Social- the four groups of growth and development.
Self-image is the mental picture that we have of ourselves.
Is how much you like, accept and respect yourself or how much you value yourself
Social development ?
The ability to interact with others around us in society and build relationships
Gross motor skills ?
The ability to control and coordinate the movement of the large limbs of the body, e.g. crawling, walking and running.
Fine motor skills ?
The ability to control and coordinate the movements of the hands and fingers, e.g. writing, painting, holding a mobile phone and using an Ipad
Language development ?
The process which children go through as they learn to communicate with others using words and speech
Seeing things from only your own perspective/viewpoint
A bond ?
To form an attachment with a parent/carer
Intellectual development during Infancy ?
Communicates with their senses and uses sounds from birth- screaming and smilling. Then they begin to babble, know one word, then to 2-3 words and then they can make a simple sentence.
Emotional development during Infancy ?
From Birth to 7 months- the infant does not mind who holds them, they may not being put down. Between 7 months and 12 months- they form a strong bond with their main carers and be wary of strangers and often cry if held by others. After 12 months, they start to form bonds with other people - the attachment process
What happens during social development in Infancy ?
The interaction between the infant with others
Why is early relationship development important for infants ?
As it acts as a model for future relationships
What are the main relationships in infancy ?
Relationships with parents, carers and brothers and sisters
What is another way infants can learn social development ?
What is the importance of play ?
Infants start the learn the process of sharing.
By what age can a child walk the up the stairs unaided and hold a crayon or pencil to draw or write ?
By 5 years old
By what age can a child usually catch and throw quite well and will have a good sense of balance ?
By 8 years old
By what age can most children speak in full sentences and have quite a good vocabulary ?
By 8 years old
How do children learn to act and behave and particular situations ?
By watching others and asking questions
What age range do children begin to learn how to handle their feelings ?
Between three and eight years old
What age range do children begin to learn how to widen their social group and form friendships with others ?
Between three and eight years old
Solitary or infancy play ?
When children play alone using their imagination and do not interact with other children.
Parellel play ?
When children play alongside each other, but not together. Toys are not shared cooperatively.
What is social play ?
When children play together, sharing their toys.
What age range is solitary or infancy play ?
0-2 years old
What age range is parallel play ?
2- 3 years old
What age range is social play ?
3-8 years old, by the age of eight the child will engage in quite complex games that often require the use of imagination.
What is the key physical feature of adolescence ?
Puberty, the reaching of sexual maturity.
Is there a difference between the ages girls and boys enter adolescence
Yes, girls enter adolescence earlier than boys.
What hormone causes the physical changes seen in puberty in girls ?
What hormone causes the physical changes seen in puberty in boys ?
A hormone produced in a women's ovaries that controls sexual development in women and stimulates the changes of the reproductive organs.
A hormone produced by the testes that controls the development of male sexual characteristics.
What are the intellectual changes that happen in adolescence ?
The development of abstract thinking, the ability to think in a more logical way and to empathise.
Abstract thinking ?
The ability to think about something that might not be there or even exist.
How is emotional development altered in adolescence ?
Large hormonal changes leads to mood swings, frustrations, insecurities and confusion, as teenagers find their own personality and indentity. Feelings of physical attractions also begin to develop, with young people first close and intimate relationships with another person.
How does social development develop in
Young people socialise more and have more independence and freedom. Young people are also influenced by the views, opnions and behaviour of their friends.
Peer group pressure?
When a social group or a group of friends encourages or influences others within the group to conform to the groups beliefs and behaviour
What are the common features of Early Adulthood ?
Starting work, meeting a partner, settling down and starting a family.
What are the common features of physical development of Early Adulthood ?
People reach their physical peak in early adulthood, and towards the end of early adulthood physical capabilities start to decrease and fertility levels also decrease. Peoples metabolic rate also decreases and as a result people to begin to burn less calories and may gain weight.
The natural and permanent stopping of menstruation (peroids), which usually occurs between the age of 45 and 55.
How does intellectual development develop in
Adults have the capability for intellectual development throughhout adulthood. For example, deciding to carry on their education in their twenties and thirties and also gaining new skills and better qualifications to improve their career. Often thought of as 'lifelong learning'.
How does emotional development develop in
Adults develop close and intimate relationships with others, these relationships create feelings of security. Some people may choose to live alone by choice or as a result of relationship breakdown. Early Adulthood is also the time when people choose to start a family.
How does social development develop in
During the early years of adulthood, people are free to have an active social life, make new friends and build new relationships. As people get older, get married and have children, a repsonsbile job and a mortgage it can be difficult to balance a work life, family life and a social life.
Middle adulthood ?
The age range between 46- 65 years of age.
Mid-life crisis ?
A period of self- doubt caused by the passing of youth and the move into later adulthood.
How does physical development develop in
Physical capabilities decline and muscle tone is not as good as it was. People may feel that they have lower energy levels and sight and hearing begin to decline. Skin loses its elasticity, and wrinkles become more noticeable. Hair becomes greyer and some men lose some of their hair and become bald.
How does intellectual development change in
Intellectual development continues and many people choose to return to education and study. The persons memories may not be as quick as they once were, but older people have a lot of life experience.
How does emotional development change in
Hormonal changes take place in the body which is linked to changing feelings and emotions. This leads many people to review their lives and some try to recapture their youths - dressing younger than their years and starting to go out more. Known as a 'mid-life crisis'.
What are the two (2) ways that social development changes in Middle Adulthood?
Two ways- 1- for middle aged people with children who have left the family home, they become more independent and have more time and more spend than ever before- they can start to build new relationships, travel more or spend more time with their families. 2- For middle aged people living in difficult financial times- recession etc, with high unemployment and limited job opportunities , they may find themselves out of work and having to support their adult children and their grandchildren
How does physical development change in
The persons skin is thinner, joints are stiffer, muscles are weaker and bones are often more brittle. Physical development at this life stage involves the loss of skills and physical capacities.
How does intellectual development change in
Intelligence does not change with age, however the speed of thinking and short-term memory might decline in late adulthood. Some may experience dementia.
An illness that affects the brain and memory, which makes the person gradually lose the ability to think and behave normally.
What are the two (2) ways that emotional development change in Late Adulthood?
1-Late adulthood enables people to spend more quality time with their friends and family, instead of trying to fit people in around work commitments. As more time is spent with people, closer friendships and relationships are developed which leads to feelings of happiness. 2-However, late adulthood is a stage where people may lose their life partner and friends due to old age and etc. Without the support of family and friends some older people may feel isolated and lonely.
The two (2) stages Late adulthood is split into ?
The first stage is 65 to 75 years old and the second stage is 75 plus.
How does social development change in the first stage of Late Adulthood?
Late adulthood people still tend to be very active and often have a busy social life.
How does social development change in the second stage of Late Adulthood?
Late adulthood people tend to slow down, but this does not mean that they socialise less.
Seven (7) factors that influence human growth and development ?
1-Expected life events- starting school
2-Unexpected life events- accidents, redundancy
4- Social/ cultural/ emotional factors
6- Physical environment- housing type, rural/urban
7-Psychological relationships- family, intimate and personal
What parts of human growth and development can genes effects ?
Physical appearance- eye colour, height, skin colour, hair colour. Genetic disorders- e.g. Down's syndrome
What parts of human growth and development can genes and environment effect together ?
Skills and talents- athletes and sports people.
Diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes- which depends on genes and diet and exercise.
Three (3) physical factors influence our development ?
1- The choices we make
2- The genes we were given by our parents
3- The people we socialise with
Eight (8) social, cultural and emotional factors influence growth and development ?
4- Sexual orientation
Social or cooperative play ?
Play where children learn to share, use their imagination and get involved in role play.
Why is social or cooperative play important ?
Children learn the important skills of how to build relationships with others and how to behave as a friend.
A role model ?
Someone whose behaviour and/or attitudes people try to copy because they admire them.
What age with children copy the behaviour of others ?
From the age of eight years old.
Who may boys see as role models ?
Sports stars such as footballers or rugby players
Who may girls see as role models ?
Pop stars and models
Gender role ?
A role that is determined by a persons gender
How was gender roles very separate in the past ?
Men went out to work and women stayed at home and were involved in looking after and raising the children.
How has gender roles changed in the present ?
Both men and women can go out to work and share the caring roles for their children.
Manual work ?
Work that requires the use of physical skills, e.g. fruit and vegetable picking
Non-manual work ?
Work that depends primarily on mental skills e.g. working as a admintrator in an office.
What are two (2) main differences between manual and non-manual work ?
People who have manual work roles tend to be more physically affected by their work and less paid than non-manual workers.
Benefits of employment ?
The option to buy items that they need for themselves and family using their salary. Work can also offer individuals the feelings of contentment and worth and raise self esteem.
The disadvantages of being unemployed ?
Living on a limited income which may mean that the individual is unable to buy items that they need for themselves and family using their salary. It also may lead to feelings of stress and anxiety and a lowering of self esteem.
What are the four (4) physical environment factors that effect an indviduals development and growth?
1- Housing conditions
2- Types of house
3- Level of pollution
4- Rural/urban area
What are the three (3) disadvantages of living in the city centre for your health ?
1-City centres are crowdy, which may mean more health risks, e.g. flu.
2-City centres have higher rates of crimes
3-City centres have more air and noise pollution e.g. asthma
What are the four (4) economic factors that effect an indviduals development and growth?
What are three (3) main types of relationships ?
1- Those with family members
3- Personal and intimate relationships with partners
Unconditional acceptance ?
When parents give their child security and accept them as they are. Security in the sense of food, love and shelter.
Why are positive relationships important ?
As there are times when we need the support of our family and friends to help use deal with the problems we face
The eight (8) expected life events ?
1- Starting school
2- Leaving school
4- Entering employment
6- Marriage/civil ceremony
7-Living with a partner
The eight (8) unexpected life events ?
1- Death of a partner
2-Death of a relative or friend
4- Ill health
5- Exclusion/dropping out of education
The two (2) main types of support ?
1- Formal support
2- Informal suppport
Providers of formal support ?
People who are trained and skilled in their work and are paid for what they do, e.g. doctors, nurses and counsellors
Providers of informal support ?
People who are not trained and do not get paid for their work, e.g. family and friends who help out with physical tasks such housework and/or provide emotional support by talking to you when your upset.
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