# HHA PrepU: Chapter 26 Male Genitalia

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A teenage male client comes to the ED with severe left testicular pain and vomiting. Elevation of his left testicle does not lessen the pain. What could these symptoms indicate for this patient?

-Left testicular torsion
-Epididymitis
-Hydrocele
-Testicular cancer
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-Left testicular torsion
Signs of testicular torsion include acute pain that is not relieved by elevating the testicle, nausea, and vomiting. Epididymitis usually presents in adult males. The client presents with unilateral pain to one testis, but fever, dysuria, and possibly urethral discharge. Hydrocele is the accumulation of fluid around a testicle. This condition usually presents as a non-tender and soft testicle. Often testicular cancer presents lump or swelling, which may or may not be painful. The condition could also present with pain in the abdomen or low back.
During a health assessment interview, a nurse learns that the client has a family history of colorectal cancer. What information should the nurse give the client about reducing the risk for colorectal cancer? Select all that apply.

-Get regular exercise for at least 30 minutes every day
-Limit exposure to cadmium and sheet metal work
-Avoid taking vitamin A supplements
-Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) should be done yearly
-Consume foods with adequate folic acid
-Get regular exercise for at least 30 minutes every day
-Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) should be done yearly
-Consume foods with adequate folic acid
The nurse should ask the client to get regular exercise for at least 30 minutes every day, have a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) every year, and include foods with adequate folic acid in the diet. The nurse informs clients who are likely to have prostate cancer to limit exposure to cadmium and sheet metal work and to avoid taking vitamin A supplements.
A client presents to the health care clinic with reports of black stool. The client denies the ingestion of iron supplements or taking Pepto-Bismol. The nurse recognizes that the black stools could be an indication of what disease process?

-Gastrointestinal bleeding
-Lack of bile pigment
-Increased fat content
-Cancer of the colon
-Gastrointestinal bleeding
Black stools may indicate gastrointestinal bleeding in this client who has not been receiving iron supplements or taking Pepto-Bismol. Clay-colored stool results from the lack of bile pigment. Yellow stool suggests increased fat content or steatorrhea. Cancer of the rectum or colon may be indicated by blood detected in the stool.
-prolapse
The nurse should document this condition as rectal prolapse. Soft structures like nodules that may be present in the muscular anal ring are called rectal polyps. They are rather common and occur in varying size and number. If cancer metastasizes to the peritoneal cavity, it may be felt as a nodular, hard, shelf-like structure called rectal shelf that protrudes onto the anterior surface of the rectum in the area of the rectouterine pouch in women. Rectal cancer may feel like a firm nodule, an ulcerated nodule with rolled edges, or, as it grows, a large, irregularly shaped, fixed, hard nodule.
-Ethnicity is a risk factor.
While prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and the third leading type resulting in death, the proportion of men diagnosed with prostate cancer who survive is high. Lung and colon cancers are more common causes of mortality. Genetics appear to account for several cases. The rate of prostate cancer is highest in men of African ancestry.
-Digital rectal examination
A digital rectal examination is performed to assess the prostate for size as well as evidence of tumor. Transillumination is used to determine the density of scrotal tissue. Pelvic examination is performed to evaluate female reproductive structures. Bladder percussion reveals information about the status of the bladder.
-Hydrocele
A hydrocele refers to a collection of fluid in the tunica vaginalis of the testes. Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital defect in males; characterized by failure of one or both of the testes to descend into the scrotum. Orchitis is an inflammation of the testes (testicular congestion) caused by pyogenic, viral, spirochetal, parasitic, traumatic, chemical, or unknown factors. Prostatism is an obstructive and irritative symptom complex that includes increased frequency and hesitancy in starting urination, a decrease in the volume and force of the urinary stream, acute urinary retention, and recurrent urinary tract infections.
-Phimosis
Phimosis is the term used to describe a condition in which the foreskin is constricted so it cannot be retracted over the glans. Bowen's disease is an in situ carcinoma of the penis. Peyronie's disease is an acquired, benign condition that involves the buildup of fibrous plaques in the sheath of the corpus cavernosum. Priapism is an uncontrolled, persistent erection of the penis from either neural or vascular causes, including medications, sickle cell thrombosis, leukemic cell infiltration, spinal cord tumors, and tumor invasion of the penis or its vessels.
-Skin lesions
During a physical examination, the nurse inspects the external genitalia, looking for abnormalities such as skin lesions and urethral discharge. Prepuce covering the glans penis is a normal finding in an uncircumcised male. The scrotum is normally pendulous, and with increasing age, it becomes more pendulous.