Earth Science Exam 3
Terms in this set (90)
Which of the following is not an element that influences weather
Which of the following gases is an efficient absorber of the earth's emitted energy?
Ozone is concentrated in the
The Montreal Protocol is a UN agreement that is intended to
reduce CFCs in the atmosphere
Where is the top of the atmosphere?
There is no defined upper limit to the atmosphere.
As you go up in elevation, the temperature
it depends on what atmospheric layer you are in
On the AVERAGE, for every 1 km increase in altitude in the troposphere, the air temperature
drops about 6.5°C
The tropopause is the boundary between
troposphere and stratosphere
The angle of the noon sun varies by ________ degrees each year
Which one of the following statements is true about the equinoxes?
Days and nights are equal in length everywhere.
The differences in summer and winter temperatures are greatest for locations
near the Poles
Diffused light is caused by
scattering of solar radiation by dust particles and gas molecules
The atmosphere acquires most of its energy from
One reason the temperature decreases with increasing altitude in the troposphere is
the water vapor in the troposphere is heated by terrestrial radiation
Clouds can decrease the range of daily temperatures because
the clouds reflect solar radiation back into space during the day
Water is unique because
it exists in all three states at normal conditions in the Earth's Atmosphere
What is the difference between a gas and a liquid
A liquid has a fixed volume but a gas does not.
The latent heat of vaporization has the effect of cooling a liquid because
the gas molecules that form and leave the liquid are the higher temperature molecules in the liquid, so the temperature of the liquid is reduced
If 2 grams of water absorbs 20 calories of heat, the resulting water temperature change is
Which of the following does not happen when the humidity exceeds 100%?
It gets warmer
What would happen if the temperature were cooled to 15°C?
increase in relative humidity and condensation of 4 grams of water
What happens to the change in temperature for unsaturated air that is rising when it reaches its saturation point?
Latent heat of condensation will be released and will decrease the rate of change of temperature for the rising air.
Why does the Florida peninsula experiences the greatest frequency of midafternoon thunderstorms of any place in the United States?
It gets winds blowing from the oceans on both sides and they collide in the middle of Florida and rise to generate thunderstorms.
When the environmental lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic rate,
surface air will rise and continue to rise
Given an environmental lapse rate of 5°C/1000 m and a dry adiabatic of 10°C, what would be the temperature of air at an elevation of 2000 m if the surface air temperature is 25°C?
The cloud form that consists of globular cloud masses that take on a billowy or "cauliflowerlike" structure is called
Thunder and lightning are associated with these clouds
Which of the following is not a type of fog caused by cooling of near surface air to below its dew point?
The Bergeron Process suggests that the coexistence of ice crystals and supercooled water droplets in a cloud is ideal for producing rain because
the ice crystals have a stronger affinity for water vapor than does liquid water.
Why does a rain gauge have a wide opening that funnels into a narrow tube?
The narrow tube minimizes evaporation and magnifies the amount of rain captured by the wide opening.
Standard sea level pressure in inches of mercury is
An altimeter is an adaptation of the
Where is the Coriolis force greatest?
Closely spaced isobars indicate
high pressure gradient and high winds
A steep pressure gradient
produces strong winds
A weather system is moving from west to east. You look at a weather map and see that you are in an area of closely spaced isobars with the center just to your east, but the spacing of the isobars increases away from you. What would you forecast for wind conditions?
Winds will decrease.
If "fair" weather were approaching, the pressure tendency would probably be
Tropical cyclones (aka hurricanes in the Atlantic) are intense low-pressure systems characterized by heavy rain and high winds. When a tropical cyclone passes an area, however, there are generally several days of clear, dry weather. Why might this occur?
The cyclone must have an outflow aloft, which feeds descending air surrounding the storm.
The Sahara and Australian deserts (among others) are associated with the
Which of the following is not true for anticyclonic storms systems in the Northern Hemisphere?
The storm system is a low-latitude phenomena associated with outflow from tropical cyclones.
Asia has an intense monsoon, but North America also experiences a low-intensity monsoon. What causes monsoons?
The heating of the continent during the summer produces a persistent low pressure over the continent that draws warm moist air masses from adjacent oceans.
You are on a boat in a fiord in Glacier Bay, Alaska. It is a clear sunny day with temperatures near 20°C with no wind. Within 5 minutes the sky is still clear but the wind is blowing at 30 knots down valley, the sea is filled with whitecaps, and the temperature drops to 5°C. What just happened?
You experienced a valley wind, caused by cold air spilling off an ice cap down the valley.
Why is the Santa Ana wind a danger signal in southern California?
It is a warm, dry wind that can quickly dry out brushlands and spread fires.
Which of the following devices measures both wind direction and speed?
Where was the El Niño phenomena first recognized?
Peru and Ecuador
An air mass from the Gulf of Mexico is labeled
A maritime Polar (mP) air mass is
cold and humid
The southeastern United States lies in the heart of the "horse latitudes" where normally we would expect desert conditions. Why isn't this area a desert?
Continental tropical air masses derived from Mexico disturb the pattern when these air masses are drawn northward by cyclonic storms.
If you were 200 kilometers ahead of the surface position of a warm front, you would find the frontal surface at a height of about ________ km overhead.
A wind shift from south or southwest to northwest is commonly associated with the passage of a ________ front.
When an active cold front overtakes a warm front,
an occluded front forms
On a weather map, ________ fronts are shown by a line with semicircles extending from one side.
TV meteorologists often point at things labeled L on a map and describe them as low pressure centers. What are they?
Midlatitude anticyclones are typically centered on
a maritime polar air mass
When a TV weather forecaster gives a forecast for "widely scattered afternoon thunderstorms," these storms are probably associated with
an unstable air mass, probably maritime tropical air with thunderstorms driven by thermals in an unstable air mass
In the Northern Hemisphere, tornadoes are most frequent during the
Tornadoes of F1 to F2 in strength account for
most of the tornadoes observed
Tropical cyclones, which are called hurricanes in the Atlantic, are called ________ in the western Pacific
The eye of a hurricane is
warmer than the rest of the storm
Tornadoes have embedded secondary vortices called suction vortices. Hurricanes also have embedded secondary vortices, they are called
Which of the following is not part of the climate system?
Temperature and precipitation are the most important elements in describing a climate because
they are the elements that have the greatest impact on humans
Of the 5 major groups in the Köppen classification system, which letter below indicates the classification that is based primarily on precipitation?
Köppen believed that the distribution of ________ was an excellent expression of the totality of climate
The major difference in vegetation between the different humid tropical (A) regions is that
wet tropical regions have rain forests, and tropical wet and dry regions have grasslands
Af and Am climates form a discontinuous belt astride the
Low latitude dry climates are found primarily
near the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.
The two types of dry (B) climates are desert and
The leeward sides of mountains are typically dry and are often arid enough to be referred to as
rain shadow deserts
The name ________ climate is often used as a synonym for the dry-summer subtropical climate.
Polar climates get most of their precipitation in the
Carbon dioxide is an important influence on climate because
it passes incoming short wavelength solar radiation, but it absorbs some longer wavelength outgoing earth radiation
Which of the following is not a trace gas
The combustion of ________ has added great quantities of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
Sea level change will have its greatest impact on coastal areas that are ________.
passive continental margins like the eastern U.S. and southern India
The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.
Which observation supports the theory that the planets formed from a disk shaped nebula?
The planets revolve around the Sun in approximately the same plane of the ecliptic.
What atmospheric gas is common in the outer planets but rare in the inner planets?
Which of these lunar features is the oldest?
How did the lunar maria most likely originate?
huge impact basins that were nearly filled with basaltic lava flows
are found both on Mars and Earth.
Erosional features related to flowing water
is the principal gas in the Venusian atmosphere and also a minor component of the atmospheres of Earth and Mars.
Which planet rotates the opposite direction it revolves around the sun?
________ has atmospheric pressures at its surface that are roughly comparable to those at Earth's surface.
Saturn's moon Titan
Jupiter contains a number of small moons that are thought to be captured comets or material ejected by collisions with larger objects. What is the evidence for this theory?
Their orbits are highly elliptical, off the plane of the ecliptic, and many are retrograde, which is unlikely for satellite formed during planetary accretion.
What is the most abundant element in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn?
Which planet has the highest recorded winds in the solar system?
meteorites are thought to be analogous in composition to Earth's core.
A comet is visible because
it is a small object, but it ejects gas and dust that at is dispersed by the solar wind to form a tail thousands of km long
Why do geologists use the radiometric age of meteorites as a guide to age of the solar system?
The meteorites have been isolated in the cold vacuum of space since their formation, so they have seen no significant heating since the time of their formation.
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