Upgrade to remove ads
Physical & Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood
Terms in this set (105)
the maximum number of years a member of a species can survive
the number of years a person can expect to live
what is average life expectancy?
at age 75, ____% of population is female
>85, ____% of the population is female
why do females out live males?
one who is 100 or older
centenarians in the US increasing ___% per year
it is projected that there will be _____________ centenarians in 2050
many centenarians are (women/men) who never married and who had unique ways of coping with stress
-better nutrition/more exercise
-decreased infant mortality
life expectancy in the US has increased to an average of 79 years due to:
US life expectancy for african americans is
-low stress lifestyle
reasons why Okinawa has highest life expectancy
US is ranked ____th cross culturally for life expectancy
-South America or Africa?
countries with the lowest life expectancy:
-respiratory cancer and coronary heart disease
-motor vehicle accidents
-cirrhosis of the liver and emphysema
-social and biological factors
men are most likely to die from:
what is considered the young old?
85 and older
what is considered the old old?
-potential for physical and cognitive fitness
-levels of emotional well-being
-effective strategies for mastering gains and losses
differences between levels of "old"
-Are mostly female, widowed, and living alone
-Are usually hospitalized in last years of life
-Die mostly alone in a hospital or institution
-Are a heterogeneous, diverse group
the old old are mostly...
-Cellular clock theory
-Hormonal stress theory
five biological theories of aging:
cellular clock theory
cells divide a maximum of 75 to 80 times
-age makes cells less capable of dividing
-telomeres - tips of chromosomes; DNA sequences that cap chromosomes involved in decreased ability for cell division
free radical theory
people age when cells metabolize energy
-by products include unstable oxygen molecules knowns as free radicals damaging cell structure
aging is caused by the decay of mitochondria (energy, growth, repair inhibited)
hormonal stress theory
Aging of the body's hormonal system lowers resistance to stress and increases likelihood of disease
weight and volume
the aging brain loses ______ and _______
5% to 10%
brain loses __% to __% of its weight between the ages of 20 and 90 years
-shrinkage of neurons
-lower number of synapses
-reduced length of axon
volume of brain decreases due to:
-new brain cells can be generated throughout life
-dendrite growth increases from the 40s to 70s
-older brains rewire to compensate for losses
-myelination increases in the 40s and 50s
-hemispheric lateralization can decrease
as the brain ages, it adapts in several ways:
the immune system declines in functioning including a decrease in numbers of ____________
__________ vaccination is very important
men lose about ______ inches from age 30-70
women lose ____ inches from age 25 to 75
_____% have difficulty sleeping associated with earlier death and lower cognitive function
sensory development declines of the eye include:
Hearing aids and cochlear Implants
__________ and _________ can minimize the problems linked to hearing loss
smell and taste loss typically begins around age ___
(increase/decrease) sensitivity to pain in late adulthood
cardiovascular disorders (decrease/increase) in late adulthood
lung capacity drops ____% between 20-80
Diaphragm strengthening exercises
lung capacity can be improved with ______________ exercises
most common chronic condition in late adulthood followed by hypertension
nearly ____% of elderly die of cancer, heart disease or stroke
leading cause of death in US older adults
painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints.
loss of bone density
leading cause of accidental death among elderly people
9th leading cause of death in older adults
binge drinking (increases/decreases) for those in late adulthood
substance use and abuse
what is the "invisible epidemic" in late adulthood?
onset of alcoholism after the age of 65
-related to loneliness, loss of a spouse, or a disabling condition
moderate drinking of red wine
Linked to better health and increased longevity due to benefits of resveratrol
-Increased longevity and prevention of common chronic
diseases (aerobic and weight training beneficial)
-Improvement in the treatment of many diseases
-Improves cellular functioning and immune system
-Optimizes body composition and reduces decline in
-Reduces the likelihood of developing mental health
-Linked to improved brain, cognitive functioning and
exercise is linked to...
-Slow the aging process and improve the health
-Neutralize free-radical activity
-Reduce oxidative stress
well balanced low fat diet
what type of diet is recommended for elderly?
over ______% of nursing homes fail to meet minimum federal standards
alternative home and community based care
______________ and _____________ decreased the percentage of older adults who live in nursing homes
patients feelings of control and self determination
factors related to health and survival in a nursing home:
The "hardware" of the mind, reflecting the neurophysiological architecture of the brain.
-involve the speed and accuracy of the processes involving sensory input, visual and motor memory, discrimination, comparison, and categorization.
is cognitive mechanics more likely to decline than cognitive pragmatics?
The culture-based "software programs" of the mind.
-include reading and writing skills, language comprehension, educational qualifications, professional skills, and also the type of knowledge about the self and life skills that help us to master or cope with life.
speed of processing
___________________ declines due to a decline in functioning of the brain and central nervous system
attention to one voice in a crowded restaurant
attention to more than one activity at the same time
attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time
attention that involves planning actions, allocating attention to goals, detecting and compensating for errors, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances
details of one life happening (color of room when a child)
younger adults have better ______ memory
memory for knowledge about the world
working memory and perceptual speed
decline during the late adulthood years
facts and experiences
retention independent of conscious recollection (skills)
(explicit/implicit) memory is more likely to be adversely affected with aging
the ability to remember where one learned something
remembering to do something in the future
Health, education, and socioeconomic status can influence an older adult's performance on memory tasks
-working memory and perceptual speed
decline of memory primarily happens in...
aspects of working memory that especially decline in older adults involve:
-updating memory representations that are relevant for the task at hand
-replacing old, no longer relevant info
-lots of variability
what type of exercise improves executive function?
late adolescence to early adulthood
_________ to __________ is the main periods of development for wisdom to emerge
Reading books, doing crossword puzzles, going to
lectures and concerts
Mental activities can benefit the maintenance of cognitive skills like...
old old adulthood
loss in plasticity mainly occurs in...
cognitive and physical
cognitive vitality of older adults can be improved by _______ and ______ fitness training
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
Difficulty understanding speech, retrieval of words during
conversation, some aspects of discourse
Some decrements in language may appear in late
lower in volume, slower, less precisely articulated, and less fluent
speech of older adults is...
slower information processing speed and decline in hearing and memory
reason for decline in language:
part time work
people over 65 tend to participate in ________ work
________________ is one of the best predictors of job
performance in older adults
workers will spend ___-__% of their lives in retirement
________ Americans retired and returned to work
____% of people in their 60s are still working
____% of people in their 70s are still working
-Active and have adequate income
-Have extended social networks and family
-Satisfied with their lives before retiring
-Flexible and plan key factors
older adults who adjust best to retirement are:
what is known as the "common cold" for elderly?
-Earlier depressive symptoms
-Poor health or disability
-Low social support
common predictors of major depression:
______% of individuals who commit suicide in the US are 65 or older
An abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive defects that include memory impairment.
-deterioration of mental functioning
_____% of individuals over the age of 80 have one form of dementia
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning
are women or men more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease?
mild cognitive impairment
a transitional state between the cognitive changes of normal aging and very early disease
drugs that has been approved by FDA to treat Alzheimer disease; increase levels of acetylcholine in the brain
A disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, often including tremors, slowing of movement, and facial paralysis
-triggered by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain
_______ of older adults fear being victim of a crime
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Physical, Cognitive & Socio-emotional Development…
Physics & Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood
Socio-emotional Development in Middle Adulthood
Socio-emotional Development in Late Adulthood
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 15: Physical and Cognitive Development in…
Essentials of Life-Span Development - Chapter 15 E…
PSYCH 220 Chapter 18 - Cognitive Develop…
Chapter 18 Cognitive development in Late Adulthood
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
patho final exam
Clinical Inquiry Quiz 1 (still need to do analysis…
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Business Law Final
Charlotte's Web lines
4.4Federalists and Republicans
Microbiology Final Practice Test