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Communication 2100 Exam 3 (Josey)
Terms in this set (83)
Definition of Media Effects
Changes of knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors resulting from media exposure
Mixed effects Perspective
Media may have limited, moderate, or powerful effects, depending on the circumstances
4 myths of media effects?
Media effects are/may-
1. simple and direct
3. must be big to be important
4. views the audience as passive and mindless
What is the earliest mass communication theory?
Mass society theory
Perception that mass communicated media messages have a greater effect on others rather then ourselves.
"We feel immune to advertisements but others are vulnerable"
Magic bullet theory/ hypodermic needle model
Media that penetrates peoples minds and instantly creates effects.
What is the Social learning theory?
What does this theory suggest a link between?
People learn from one another by imitation and modeling
- Theory suggests a link between the mass media and behavior
What is the limited effects perspective?
It is exhibited through...
Media effects on individuals is slight - its exhibited through a more indirect effect on the masses
Triadic reciprocal determinism helps us understand what?
What are 3 mutual influential factor sets?
Helps us understand media effects.
- Refers to the mutual influence between three factor sets
1. Personal factors
2. Environmental factors
3. Behavior factors
What is the "Two step flow theory"
Media has an indirect effect on the masses.
- Media communicates to "opinion leaders" who communicate messages to their "opinion followers"
Media Message ---> Opinion Leader-----> group masses
5 key concepts of media literacy
1. Media are constructions
- created by individuals to convey a message
2. Media have commercial implications
- Different audiences can take away different meaning from the same media
3. Audience negotiate meaning,
- media is a business and must make money
4. Media is social and political.
- Conveys power, values and authority
5. Media has it own unique aesthetic form.
- It has a different way to grab your attention
What is a "Opinion leader"
Who media communicates to and they (opinion leader) filter media messages to the audience
What is the "Independent Variable"
The causes of the media effects
What is the "dependent variable"
Consequences (effects) of media exposure
Cantrills war of the worlds research?
Orson Welles's book, "War of the Worlds", was played on a radio broadcast and caused panic on some listeners.
Cantrills conclusion on "war of the worlds" research found that those who panicked had what 2 traits about themselves?
- Had a high emotional insecurity and were more isolated from those around them
That mass media exposure supports a view of the world that is consistent with mediated reality
Agenda Setting is the process...
Which public figures and important events help shape media content
Spreading activation makes aggressive thoughts more accessible after exposure to media violence
- Theory states that media images stimulate related thoughts in the minds of audience members
A hypothesis arguing that media sex and violence have positive effects and allow people to live their anti-social desires in a meditated fantasy world
What methodological approach is dominant in the study of media effects?
Social scientific approach
What 3 things is the "mass society theory" based on?
- philosophical, political, and moral reasoning
What is the average time Americans spend on media a day?
The "Box of Masculinity" is a....
Code that American boys are taught to live by
- promotes aggression and toughness
- Devaluates emotions
A front men out on to shield their vulnerabilities and avoid being called a "pussy" or "fag"
"Cool pose" is a masculine persona...
Put on by men from minority races to signal they are tough even though they aren't white
Arousal and media violence effects...
Arousal is a physiological reaction which:
- enhances aggressive tendencies or triggers specific emotions.
- Enhance emotion could link to behavior changes
Example of the bushmaster ad?
Bushmasters is classifying the use of weapons as manly and powerful
- Aggression is the preferred method to show your a man
Fear of victimization effect
Exposure to media violence cultivates fear.
- The more you watch TV the higher at risk you are
Men quietly suffering and are depressed but do not come out and say it.
- affects 3/4 men
What is Bell hooks' idea of an enlightened witness
A more critical lenses when viewing media representation
% of woman and girls with eating disorder
% of men and women on TV
% of men and women in G rated movies
3 types of effects of gender portrayals
Problems faced by women in power
Have lower political efficacy.
- The idea that your voice matters less in politics
Stereotype threat and 2 effects?
Experience of anxiety/concern in a situation where a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about their social group
Idea of "you can't be what you can't see"
You want to be what you see, it inspires you.
EX: a little girl doesn't see a woman as president, how can she ever see herself as becoming president?
Self-esteem and self-efficacy
Esteem: Opinion one has about themselves
Efficacy: Belief you can accomplish something
Political efficacy is the belief... and "self-objectification" takes place when....
PE: Belief you can influence political affairs SO- When people view themselves as objects instead of human beings When self-objectifaction increase, political efficacy decreases
"Symbolic annihilation" is...
The underrepresentation of groups of people in the media
Role of media deregulation
- Led to more representation of women and social actions (EX: Feminist movement)
- Focus on important stories
Difference between body esteem and self-objectification
Body esteem is satisfaction with your appearance
Self-Objectification is viewing yourself as a object rather then a human being
"Entertainment theory" is the psychological processes of...
- cognitive and affective enjoyment of media
- Study of:
-Media enjoyment and appreciation
-Pleasure related responses to media
-Pro-social effects of media entertainment
Being able to distinguish between right and wrong
Entertainment-education is media message....
To entertain and educate aimed to increase audience knowledge about an educational issue.
- Create favorable attitudes and change overt behavior
Potters box is a process to decide on...
What is "Media literacy"
The process of understanding and using media in an assertive and non-passive way
- The ability to be competent, critical, and literate in all media forms
"Globalization" is the process of.....
- Driven and aided by what?
It reduces differences that...
- interaction and integration among people, companies and governments of different nations.
- a Process driven by international trade and investment and aided by informational technology
- Reducing differences that existed between nations in time, space, and culture
Cognitive activity that occurs outside of consciousness.
- Not understanding whats really being presented to you
Local people borrowing or adapting global issues
Some countries dominate others through media
Personal locus is an awareness....
of your personal goals and the drive/energy to achieve them
Preference of audiences for media in their own language and culture
Learning by being is...
- Learning through role play is helpful with being exposed to diversity
Free flow of information
When information flows as freely as possible between countries
Prosocial effects are media effects which are...
Media effects that are "socially desirable in some way which benefits other people or society at large."
EX: education/learning, job kills, health, pleasure, identity development
Hobbs' 4 digital literacy competencies
Create and collaborate
Analyzing and evaluating
Applying ethical judgement
Area of the world with the lowest cell phone access?
Pakistan, India, Mexico
- Other 3rd world countries
A puruvian peasant girl who moves out of the city, worked as a maid to save up for a sewing machine and became a successful seamstress
6 largest globalized media firms
- Time warner
Media content that sells well globally?
Hobbs' lineage of the history of literacy?
1. Sharing of meaning through language
2. Reading and writing
3. Visual literacy: how to look, how images carry meaning
4. Information literacy: how to use computer technology
5. Digital literacy: Ability to use and understand information from digital sources
6 assumptions of the U&G perspective
1. The audience is active and its media use is goal orientated
2. People have various needs
3. Audience members take intative to link need gratification to a specific media
4. The media compete with other sources for need satisfaction
5. People have enough self awareness of their own media use
6. Value judgement of media content can be only accessed by the audience
What is Self esteem?
Opinion someone has about themselves
What is self efficacy?
Ones belief in their ability to get something accomplished
Desensitization toward violence is described by having 3 facets
1. Callous attitude toward violence
2. Reduced emotional response to violence
3. Decreased likelihood of intervening in real life violence
When one is viewed as a sex object (usually women) and judged from a standard of beauty
Tim watches a lot of news media which results in the over-emphasis of crime. Therefore tim thinks the world is more dangerous than it is, relates to what term?
Mean world syndrome
Some negative outcomes related to self-objectification?
2. Body shame
3. Eating disorders
4. Appearance anxiety
The notion that we consume media messages depending on our views
T or F:
Cultivation theory was originally developed to study tv?
What is digital literacy?
The ability to use and understand digital media
______________________ is the effect of the media that makes individuals less likely to intervene during real life violence.
'What we do with media, rather than what media do to us", is the theoretical frame work for what prosocial effects?
Uses and gratification
Assumptions of social cognitive theory
People can learn from seeing modeled behaviors and consequences in the media
Desensitization does what 3 things?
1. Reduces Sensitivity
2. Reduces empathy
3. Reinforces rape myth acceptance
4 learning processes
Exposure to media violence increases aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Assumption of cultivation theory
Heavy TV viewers will be more likely to agree with TV's version of reality then light TV viewers
When People behave online in a different way than they would in person is an example of what effect?
Regionalization links nations together based on:
Application of standard image or concept to group members based on limited information is what?
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