Upgrade to remove ads
BSC2085 Lesson 22-23
Terms in this set (200)
What type of muscle contraction uses a lot of ATP energy?
sustained muscle contraction
muscles store enough energy to start what?
what must manufacture more ATP as needed?
a muscle fiber has how many thick filaments? How much ATP does each thick filament break down?
-15 billion thick filaments
- 2500 ATP molecules per second
How many ATP molecules are broken down per second in one muscle cell??
what is ATP?
- adenosine triphosphate
- the active energy molecule
what is CP?
what is it the storage molecule for?
- creatine phosphate
- the storage molecule for excess ATP energy in resting muscle
energy recharges ADP to what?
energy recharges ADP to ATP using what enzyme?
creatine kinase (CK)
how does CK recharges ADP to ATP?
it removes the phosphate from CP and adds it to DP to reform ATP
When CP is used up, other mechanisms generate ________
how do cells produce ATP? (2 ways)
1) aerobic metabolism
(WITH AIR AND THE MOST EFFICIENT)
2) anaerobic glycolosis
where does aerobic metabolism occur?
of fatty acids in the mitochondria
where does anaerobic glycolysis occur?
in the cytoplasm
what is the primary energy source for RESTING muscles?
what is the primary energy source for PEAK muscular activity?
WHEN RUNNING FOR YOUR LIFE (LACTIC ACID BUILDS UP)
what provides 95% of ATP in a resting cell?
aerobic metabolism breaks down what?
Does glycolysis require O2?
No, it is anaerobic
glycolysis breaks down what from what?
glucose from glycogen stored in skeletal muscles
How many ATP does aerobic metabolism produce?
34 ATP molecules per glucose molecule
how many ATP does glycolysis produce?
2 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose
skeletal muscle at rest metabolizes ____ and stores ____.
1) fatty acids
skeletal muscle produces______________ at rest and adds ______________ to creatine to produce _______
what does skeletal muscle at rest add to creatine? what does this produce?
during moderate activity, how do muscles generate ATP?
through breakdown of what??
through anaerobic AND aerobic breakdown of carbs, lipids, or amino acids
what reaction type provides energy during peak activity?
what does this generate?
- anaerobic reactions
- lactic acid
what do resting muscle fibers absorb?
Muscle Metabolism in a Resting Muscle Fiber
The demand for ATP is ________ and sufficient oxygen is
available for ____________ to meet that demand
Muscle Metabolism in a Resting Muscle Fiber
________ acids are absorbed and broken down in the
mitochondria creating a surplus of _________.
In a resting muscle fiber, some mitochondrial ATP is used to convert Absorbed glucose into what?
- converts absorbed glucose into glycogen
- converts creatine into CP (creatine phosphate)
in a resting muscle fiber, there is a build up of what in the muscle?
energy reserves (glycogen and CP)
excess ATP generated during rest is used to create what?
glycogen and CP
in moderate activity, is there enough oxygen for the mitochondria to meet that demand?
The demand for ATP ___________
in moderate activity, are any excess ATP produced?
in moderate activity, what produces ATP?
the aerobic metabolism of glucose from stored glycogen
if the glycogen reserves are low during moderate activity, how is ATP produced?
instead of breaking down glycogen, fatty acids are broken down
how much of the ATP is used to power muscle contraction in moderate activity?
During peak activity, how much ATP is provided by the mitochondria?
how much is provided by glycolysis?
- 1/3 from mitochondria
- 2/3 from glycolysis
During peak activity, how high is the demand for ATP?
The demand for ATP is enormous
During peak activity, in which form of metabolism is oxygen NOT used?
During peak activity,
diffuse into the fiber fast enough for the mitochondria
to meet that demand.
Only a _________ of the cell's ATP
needs can be met by the mitochondria.
During peak activity,
The rest of the ATP comes from ____________, and when
this produces pyruvate faster than the mitochondria
can utilize it, the pyruvate builds up in the ___________.
During peak activity,
The pyruvate is converted to ______________
. Hydrogen ions
from ATP hydrolysis are NOT absorbed by the
During peak activity,
The buildup of hydrogen ions increases cytosol
___________, which inhibits muscle _________________, leading to
what can build up in the muscle during peak activity?
when muscles can no longer perform a required activity, they are ____.
depletion of metabolic reserves can result in what?
damage to sarcolemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum can result in what?
low pH (from lactic acid production) can result in what?
lactic acid dissociates to yield what?
lactate ion and H+
muscle exhaustion and pain can result in what?
how long can it take moderate activity to recover?
how long can it take sustained high activity to recover?
up to a week
what is the time required after exertion for muscles to return to normal?
the recovery period
what becomes available during the recovery period?
what resumes during the recovery period?
The Cori Cycle
- movement of _________ acid to ___________
back to muscle cell
what cycle removes and recycles lactic acid?
the cori cycle
what organ is used in the cori cycle?
in the cori cycle, the liver converts ____ (from lactic acid) to ____.
1) lactate ion
in the cori cycle, 2 pyruvate are used to create what?
a glucose molecule
in the cori cycle, what is released to recharge muscle glycogen reserves in the muscle fiber?
what does the body need more than usual to normalize metabolic activities?
why do we breathe heavily after exercise or exertion?
because our body needs more oxygen than usual to normalize metabolic activities
what is heavy breathing after exercise or exertion called?
excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption) restores pre-exertion conditions in what? (2 things)
1) skeletal muscle
how does EPOC restore pre-exertion conditions in skeletal muscles?
it restores ATP, CP, and glycogen
how does EPOC restore pre-existing conditions in the liver?
it converts lactic acid to glucose
Active muscles produce _________
how much muscle energy can be lost as heat?
(in active muscles)/ what does this cause?
- raise in body temperature
active muscles produce what?
how much energy can be lost as heat in resting muscles?
how come there is more energy loss in active muscle?
because when we are using these muscles actively, you are burning through your ATP reserves and you have to start going through anaerobic breakdown of glucose (not very efficient only 2 ATP)
what Is the maximum amount of tension produced?
what is the amount of time an activity can be sustained?
force and endurance depend on what 2 things?
1) the types of muscle fibers
2) physical conditioning
what are the 3 types of skeletal muscle fibers?
1) fast fibers
2) slow fibers
3) intermediate fiber
what type of skeletal muscle fiber contracts very quickly?
haVE a large __________________
Fast fibers have large __________ reserves and few ____________________
what type of skeletal muscle fiber contains low amounts of myoglobin?
fast fibers and intermediate fibers
what is myoglobin?
red pigments that bind oxygen
what type of skeletal muscle fiber has a low blood supply?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber has strong contractions?
why do the contractions of fast fibers fatigue quickly?
because they have lots of myofibrils
most skeletal muscle fibers in the body are what type?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber are slow to contract and slow to fatigue?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber have a small diameter?
why do slow fibers have more mitochondria?
to support aerobic metabolism
what type of skeletal muscle fiber has high oxygen supply?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber has a rich blood supply?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber makes muscles appear dark red?/ why?
slow fibers because they have a rich blood supply
what type of skeletal muscle fiber contains high amounts of myoglobin?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber has the most amount of myoglobin?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber are mid-sized?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber has more capillaries than fast fibers and are slower to fatigue?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber appearance is pale in color?
intermediate fibers are more similar to what other type of skeletal muscle fiber?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber are fatigue resistant?
what type of skeletal muscle fiber are easily fatigued?
white muscles have mostly what type of skeletal muscle fiber?
what is an example of a white muscle? (generic)
Pale (e.g., chicken breast, eye, hand muscles)
red muscles have mostly what type of skeletal muscle fiber?
what is an example of a red muscle? (generic)
Dark (e.g., chicken legs, back, calf muscles)
most human muscles have mixed fibers,
ratio ________________ determined)
so what color do they appear?
athletic training can increase the ratio of what type of fibers?
ratio of intermediate fibers to fast fibers
how does athletic training increase the ration of intermediate fibers to fast fibers?
fast fibers "convert" to intermediate and become more resistant to fatigue
what is muscle hypertrophy?
muscle growth from heavy training
muscle hypertrophy increases what? (4)
1) ____________ of muscle fibers (NOT __________ of muscle fibers/cells)
2) number of __________
4) ______________ reserves
1.diameter, number #
true or false:
muscle growth from heavy training (hypertrophy) can increase the number of muscle fibers/cells/
false, it increases the diameter of muscle fibers
what is muscle atrophy?
lack of muscle activity
what does muscle atrophy decrease?
- muscle size
muscle atrophy occurs in what?
- broke bone (limb immobilized in cast)
can muscle atrophy be reversed?
- at first, yes
- becomes permanent in extreme atrophy
i.e Audrey Hepburn (RIP)
what does warming up before exercising do?
1) promotes ________ flow
2) increases muscle __________________ to help contraction
3) increases ___________ function to break down glucose
what can improve both power and endurance?
what are examples of anaerobic activities?
- 50 meter dash
for the first 10-20 seconds anaerobic activities are supported by ________ and _______ reserves
- after that, _____________ from glycogen breakdowns
-ATP and CP reserves for the first 10-20 seconds
- after that, glycolysis from glycogen breakdowns
Anaerobic activities use __________ fibers and Fatigue _________ (within _____ mins) with strenuous activity
Use fast fibers
Anaerobic activities are Improved by frequent, ______, ______________workouts
Causes muscle ______________
Improves both _________ and _______________
what activities are considered aerobic activities?
prolonged activities like jogging and distance swimming
what are aerobic activities supported by?
what type of skeletal muscle fibers do anaerobic activities use?
what can improve anaerobic activities?
frequent, brief, intensive workouts
frequent, brief, intensive workouts can cause what?
- improvement of anaerobic activities
- muscle hypertrophy
what type of activity requires oxygen and nutrients continuously supplied by the bloodstream?
why do athletes "carbo-load" before events?
to increase glucose supply during the event ( because they need a oxygen and nutrients continuously supplied in the bloodstream for aerobic activities)
how do aerobic activities improve endurance?
by training fast fibers to be more like intermediate fibers
true or false:
Aerobic activities cause muscle hypertrophy
what type of activity increases cardiovascular performance?
what type of activities deal with cardio?
What you don't use you ____________
what indicates base activity in motor units of skeletal muscles?
with prolonged inactivity, what may replace muscle fibers?
Muscles become _________ when inactive for days or weeks
Muscle fibers break down _____________, become smaller and weaker
what type of muscle cells are striated and found only in the heart?
the striations of cardiac muscles are similar to skeletal muscles because what is similar?
the internal arrangement of myofilaments
what muscle cells are under involuntary control?
smooth and cardiac
what muscle cells are under voluntary control?
what are cardiocytes
cardiac muscle cells
what type of muscle cells are small and branched?
what type of muscle cells have a single nucleus?
cardiocytes have short & wide
__-_____________ and no __________
where do T tubules of cardiocytes run along?
Z line of sarcomeres
cardiocytes have a Sarcoplasmic _____________ with no terminal ______________
hence the triad is INCOMPLETE
cardiocytes are ___________ and high in
____________ and _______________)
what type of muscle cells have intercalated disc?
what are the specialized contact points between cardiocytes?
what do intercalated discs of cardiocytes do?
join cell membranes of adjacent cardiocytes (gap junctions, desmosomes)
what are the functions of intercalated discs in cardiocytes? (4)
1) maintain ____________
stabilize position of adjacent ________ and maintain ______ structure of tissue
2) enhance molecular and electrical ___________
3) conduct ____________ potentials
4) coordinate _____________
how do intercalated discs of cardiocytes maintain structure?
they stabilize the position of adjacent cells and maintain 3D structure of tissue
how do intercalated discs coordinate cardiocytes?
they link them mechanically, chemically, and electrically to make heart function as a single, fused mass of cells
what causes a Ca2+ influx into cytoplasm from SR in cardiocyte and from outside the cell?
what are the 4 functional characteristics of cardiac muscle tissue?
2) variable contraction tension
3) extended contraction time-Ten times as long as skeletal muscle, do not fatigue easily
4) prevention of wave summation and titanic contractions by cell membranes
what is automaticity?
contraction without what ??????
- contraction WITHOUT neural stimulation
- function characteristic of cardiac muscle tissue
what is automaticity of cardiac muscle tissue controlled by?
where are pacemaker cells located?
right atrium of heart
what is variable contraction tension controlled by?
the nervous system
why do cardiac muscle tissues prevent wave summation and tetanic contractions by cell membranes?
because they have a long refractory period which prevents summation/tetanus
Smooth Muscle in Body Systems
what muscle causes "goose bumps"?
arrector pili muscle (smooth muscle tissue)
what does smooth muscle tissue regulate in blood vessels and airways?
regulates blood pressure and airflow
where can smooth muscle tissue be found?
- the integumentary system
- in blood vessels and airways
- in reproductive and glandular systems
- in digestive and urinary systems
what does smooth muscle tissue produce in reproductive and glandular systems?
what does smooth muscle tissue form in digestive and urinary systems?
- forms sphincters
- produces contractions
what muscle tissue is non striated?
Smooth muscle has a Different internal organization of _______ and ___________
Actin attached to _________ bodies attached to sarcolemma or _____________ filaments
Different functional characteristics
what type of muscle cells are long, slender, and spindle shaped?
smooth muscle cells
what type of muscle cells have no T tubules, myofibrils, or sarcomeres?
smooth muscle cells
Smooth Muscle Cells Have a single, central nucleus
T or F?
smooth muscle cells have no _____________ or ____________
smooth muscle cells have ______________ myosin fibers
smooth muscle cell's ____________ fibers have more heads per thick filament
smooth muscle cells have ________ filaments attached to dense bodies
smooth muscle cell's dense bodies transmit ________________ from cell to cell (adjacent cells attach to each other at ________ bodies)
what are the 4 functional characteristics of Smooth muscle tissue?
1) excitation-contraction coupling
2) length-tension relationships
3) control of contractions
4) smooth muscle tone
in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle tissue, free Ca2+ in cytoplasm triggers what?
in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle tissue, Ca2+ enters _____ from extracellular fluid and ______
in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle tissue, what does Ca2+ bind with in the sarcoplasm
INSTEAD of troponin?
calmodulin (instead of troponin as found in skeletal muscle cells)
in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle tissue, what is activated that initiates CONTRACTION?
myosin light chain kinase
What is myosin light chain kinase?
what does it break down?
enzyme that breaks down ATP, initiates contraction in the excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle tissue
in excitation-contraction coupling of smooth muscle tissue, what is required for myosin head to attach to actin?
activation of myosin light chain
in smooth muscle tissue, thick and thin filaments are ____.
scattered (not organized into sarcomeres)
in smooth muscle tissue, resting length is NOT related to what?
what muscle tissue functions over a wide range of lengths (plasticity)?
smooth muscle tissue can contract over a range of lengths how many times greater than that of skeletal muscles?
where is the plasticity of smooth muscle tissue important?
in areas where size changes dramatically (ex: stomach, digestive tract)
what type of smooth muscle cell is connected to motor neurons similar to skeletal muscle motor units?
multiunit smooth muscle cells
what are examples of multiunit smooth muscle cells being connected to multiple motor neurons?
-iris of eye
-walls of large arteries
- arrector pilli
what type of smooth muscle cell are NOT connected to motor neurons?
visceral smooth muscle cells
what are the 2 types of smooth muscle cells?
the rhythmic cycles of activity of visceral smooth muscles cells are controlled by what?
how are viscera smooth muscle cells connected together?
by gap junctions to spread contraction
what are examples are where visceral smooth motor cells can be found?
smooth muscle tone maintains normal levels of what?
activity (found in multiunit and visceral smooth muscle tissue)
what can modify normal levels of activity in smooth muscle tissue?
neural, hormonal, or chemical factors
What does hypoxia at tissue cause?
relaxation of smooth muscles regulating capillaries that bring blood to those tissues
what happens when O2 levels are restored to normal after hypoxia?
smooth muscle regains normal muscle tone and constricts to lower blood flow to that tissue
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
BSC 2085 Lesson 20
BSC 2085 Lesson 21
BSC 2085- Lesson 8/9
Yung Su BSC2085 Exam 1
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
A&P 1 Chapter 9
Chapter 10 Anatomy and Physiology
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Respiratory Dysfunction in Children
Immunizations & Communicable Diseases