Restrictive lung diseases, on the other hand, mean the lungs are unable to fully expand, so they limit the amount of oxygen taken in during inhalation. This limitation also restricts what can be exhaled when compared to an average person.
Intrinsic restrictive lung disorders cause an internal abnormality, usually leading to the stiffening, inflammation, and scarring of the lung tissues
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
interstitial lung disease
fibrosis caused by radiation
infant and acute respiratory distress syndrome
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
Extrinsic restrictive lung disease is caused by complications with tissues or structures outside of the lungs, including neurological conditions.
pleural effusions, or the buildup of excessive fluid between tissue layers surrounding the lungs
scoliosis, or twisting of the spine
neuromuscular disease or conditions, such as Lou Gehrig's disease (ALS), multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy
myasthenia gravis, or intermittent muscle weakness
rib damage, especially fractures
ascites, or abdominal swelling connected with liver scarring or cancer
kyphosis, or hunching of the upper back