167 terms

POLS 1502 final exam review

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agency
refers to both the human action that makes things happen and the capacity for such action
alternative member model
a hybrid voting system that combines the strengths of majoritarianism and proportional representation: votes are cast both for individual candidates within a constituency and for a general list of candidates from separate parties
amoral familism
the promotion of family interests above all other moral considerations; the term was coined by Banfield to describe social relations in Sicily and was later used by Putnam
anarchy
the absence of political rule or sovereignty
anthropocentric
human-centered; prioritizing the interests of humans over those of all other life forms
Arrow's Impossibility Theorem
a mathematical result showing that, under certain assumed conditions, there is no scheme for aggregating individual preferences into a valid set of social preferences
authoritarian
a form of rule that restricts personal liberty and is not accountable to the public
authority
legitimate power, in the sense that the individual or group exercising it is regarded as having the right to do so
balance of power
a system of relations between states in which the goal is to maintain an equilibrium of power (usually military and economic), thus preventing the dominance of any one state
behaviouralism
an approach to the study of social phenomena based on the methods used in the natural sciences

objective measurement of the social world was the goal, and values were considered to have no place in social inquiry
bicameralism
a system of govt in which the legislature is divided between 2 separate chambers.

ex. Canada's House of Commons and Senate
bipolarity
in international politics, a situation in which two states possess a preponderance of economic, military, and political power and influence either internationally or in a particular region

during the Cold War the two "poles" were the US and the USSR
bourgeoisie
a term associated with Marxist analysis, referring to the merchant or propertied class that possesses essential economic power and therefore has control over the working class or proletariat
cartel party
a type of political party that has a relatively limited membership and is dominated by professional politicians
citizenship
the state of being a citizen, with the social and political rights required to participate in state decision making
civic structure
the particular set of attitudes that allow citizens to feel capable of taking an active part in politics
civic nationalism
loyalty to the institutions and values of a particular political community; sometimes presented as a more moderate form of nationalism
civil society
broadly, the community of citizens; today, however, the term is often used specifically to refer to institutions (such as institutions and NGOs) that stand in an intermediary position between the individual and the state
civilization
the largest possible grouping of individuals with shared religious, linguistic, or cultural features.
class analysis
analysis that centres on socio-economic class (proletariat, peasantry, bourgeoisie, aristocracy);

the type of political analysis associated with traditional Marxism.
classical liberalism
developed in the 18th and 19th centuries, this theory promotes limiting the state's role in political, economic, and social life

calls for the state to do little except ensure internal and external security and enforcing property rights

in this view, the market is the most effective means of meeting human needs
Cold War
a term for the states system as it existed between the end of WWII and the collapse of the USSR in the 1990s
colonialism
the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically
communitarianism
a school of thought that emphasizes the individual's particular community as the source of his or her identity, rights, and duties;

often contrasted with cosmopolitanism.
Concert of Europe
a largely informal agreement among the major powers of 19th century Europe to act together on matters of mutual concern
conservativism
a political theory advocating traditional inherited values and methods of achieving political, economic, and social objectives

opposed to radical change change and prefer community and preservation of established norms, procedures, and institutions

can also imply distrust of government espansion and a belief in limited government, low taxes, and reduced social spending.
consociational democracy
a form of rule practiced in some divided societies whereby the elites of different communities within the society share power
constituency
an electoral district
constitution
a body of principles governing relations between a state and its population
constitutionalism
the principle that assigns a special significance to constitutions and rule of law in national life
constructivism
the notion that "reality" of the world around us is constructed inter-subjectively through social interaction that gives meaning to material objects and practices

thus "reality" is not simply an objective truth detached from a social base
corporatism
an arrangement in which government officials interact with people and groups outside the government before they set policy.
cosmopolitan democracy
A system based on popular control of supranational institutions and processes
cosmopolitanism
the idea that humans ought to be regarded as a single moral community to which universal principles apply, irrespective of national boundaries
cultural pluralism
the existence of a many cultures within a society/country.
deliberative democracy
A model of democracy based on the principle that discussion and debate among citizens lead to rational, legitimate, and altruistic decision-making
democracy
a political system based on elected, representative self-government by citizens
democratic elitism
a model of democracy in which voters have the opportunity to choose between competing teams of leaders

an attempt, most closely associated with Joseph Schumpeter, to reconcile elitism with democracy.
détente
the easing of hostility or strained relations, especially between states
deterrance
the theory that the possession of powerful weapons will deter aggression by other states
developmental state
a state that gives priority to rapid economic development and uses carrots and sticks to induce private economic institutions to comply

Japan is a classic example.
direct democracy
a system in which the people rule directly (not through representatives)
Duverger's law
The idea that first-past-the-post electoral systems lead to two-party systems.
ecocentrisim
an ethic that removes humans from the centre of the moral universe and accords intrinsic value on nonhuman parts of nature
ecological modernization
a version of the "sustainable development" principle according to which liberal capitalist societies can be reformed in an environmentally sustainable way
ecologism
an ideology that stresses the interdependence of all forms of life; often connotes the moral dethroning of humans
elitism
in a normative sense, the rule of the most able; in an empirical sense, rule by a group that is beyond popular control
emancipation
a normative aspiration to liberate people from unfair economic, social, and political conditions
embedded autonomy
the position of state economic policymakers in developmental states who are insulated from short-term pressures but sufficiently embedded in the society to be aware of its needs and priorities
empire
a system in which a one country or centre of power directly or indirectly dominates and controls other, weaker countries
empirical analysis
analysis of factual information (what is, as opposed to what ought to be)
enlightenment
the European intellectual and cultural movement that emphasized the use of reason in the search for knowledge and human progress
epistomology
study of knowledge
ethnic cleansing
the systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation
ethnocentricity
the tendency to view one's own culture as natural, correct and superior; view the world primarily from the perspective of one's own cultural, ethnic, or national group
false consciousness
a term used by Karl Marx to describe an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect their objective position
federalism
the principle that different territorial units within a state has the authority to make certain policies without interference from the centre
First Nations
a group of Canada's Native American people
fordism
system of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford
genocide
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
global governnace
an extension of the concept of governance, referring loosely to the "architecture" constituted by various authoritative political, social, and economic structures and actors that interconnect and interact in the absence of actual "government" in the global sphere
globalization
the ongoing movement toward economic, political, social, and cultural interdependence that has reduced the autonomy of sovereign states
global justice
the application of principles of justice at a global (as opposed to national) level
global south
a term for the poorer, underdeveloped countries of the world (most of which lie south of the equator), more or less corresponding to what used to be called the "third world"

its counterpart is the "north" -- a term that is sometimes used as an alternative designation for "the west".
good governance
a set of principles formulated by international financial institutions to make the government of developing states fair, effective, and free from corruption
governance
The process of governing
harm principle
the principle, associated with John Stuart Mill, that all actions should be allowed unless they harm others
hegemony
political, social, and economic domination
human nature
the general psychological characteristics, feelings, and behavioral traits of humankind, regarded as shared by all humans
humanitarian intervention
direct intervention by one country or a group of countries in the internal affairs of another country for humanitarian reasons
idealism
the practice of forming or pursuing ideals, especially unrealistically.
illiberal democracy
a state in which elections are held but there is relatively little protection of rights and liberties, and state control over the means of communication means that the party in power generally remains there
imperialism
domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
indigenous knowledge
local understanding of the environment, climate, plants, animals, and making a living
indigenous peoples
natives of an area who have been conquered or dominated by others who came later
insider groups
interest groups that enjoy a privileged relationship with government
institutions
regular patterns of behaviour that provide stability and regularity in social life
interdependece
in IR, the (primarily liberal) notion that states are increasingly interconnected through a web of relations, especially in the economic field, and that makes welfare less desirable as a foreign policy strategy
interest groups
groups within civil society that seek to press specific interests on governments
intergenerational justice
principles of justice relating to non-contemporaries; e.g., between parents and children, or those living now and those still to be born
international civil society
broadly, the realm of non-state actors, including interest groups and voluntary associations, in the international sphere
international regime
the principles, norms, rules, and procedures around which groups of actors in certain areas of international relations converge. An example is the international human rights regime. The concept was developed by Stephen Krasner
international society
a society of states characterized by peaceful working relations; a concept associated with the English School of International Relations, which proposed that the anarchic nature of the international sphere did not preclude cooperation
internationalism
the belief in the benefits of international political and economic co-operation
intervention
in IR, usually refers to direct intervention by one or more states in the international affairs of another, by either military or nonmilitary means
intragenerational justice
Principles of justice relating to contemporaries, that is, people who are living at the same time
Inuit
a member of the arctic native peoples of North America
iron triangles
groups of officials, politicians, and outside experts who formulate policy
issue networks
the loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
legal positivism
A form of legal theory according to which law is simply what the state says it is
liberal democracy
a state characterized by free and fair elections, universal suffrage, a relatively high degree of personal liberty, and protection of individual rights
mass parties
Parties with large numbers of citizens as members and that undertake massive political mobilization
mercantilism
the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism.
meritocratic theory of justice
a theory that advocates distributing resources to those who display some merit, such as innate ability, or willingness to work, and therefore deserve to be rewarded
metanarrative
a "grand narrative," a comprehensive philosophical or historical explanation of the social and political world presented as ultimate truth.
methodology
a particular procedure or set of procedures
modernity
a temporal and cultural phenomenon linked in part to the rise of industrialization in Europe and North America and in part to profound changes in social and political thought associated with the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.
monism
the view that there are no fundamental divisions in phenomena
nation
a named community, often referred to as "a people," usually occupying a homeland and sharing one or more cultural elements, such as a common history, language, religion, or set of customs

nations may or may not have states of their own
nation-building
the process in which a state is created and then it leaders attempt to mould its sometimes quite diverse groups of inhabitants into a coherent, functional "nation"
national interest
the interests of a state overall (as opposed to particular parties or factions within the state)
nationalism
in politics and IR, the doctrine or ideology according to which "the nation" is entitled to political autonomy, usually in a state of its own
natural law
a doctrine that society should be governed by certain ethical principles that are part of nature and, as such, can be understood by reason.
natural rights
rights that all people have by virtue of being human
negative liberty
liberty that can be increased by removing external obstacles, such as physical constraints or legal prohibitions
neoconservativism
a political ideology characterized by an emphasis on free-market capitalism and an interventionist foreign policy
new liberalism
A version of liberalism that advocates a more positive role for the state than classical liberalism. Argues that the state, in correcting the inequities of the market, can increase liberty by creating greater opportunities for individuals to achieve their goals
new medievalism
a system of governance resembling Europe in the Middle Ages where authority belongs to an overlapping array of local, national and supranational institutions
new public management
an approach to the reform of government bureaucracies, in the 1990s, that sought to introduce methods of business administration
night-watchman state
a model in which the state concentrates on ensuring security (external and internal), playing little role in civil society and allowing the economic market to operate relatively unhindered
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
organizations independent of governments that monitor and improve political, economic, and social conditions throughout the world
normative analysis
the basis of political philosophy

concerned with what "ought to be," as opposed to what "is." Thus instead of asking whether democracy, or freedom, or a pluralist state exists, it asks whether these things are desirable.
ontology
the study of what really exists
original position
John Rawls' name for a hypothetical condition in which rational and unbiased individuals select the principles of social justice that govern a well-ordered society
outsider groups
interest groups that enjoy no special relationship with the government and thus seek to press their case from the outside.
parliamentarianism
the principle that governments are formed by prime ministers (as opposed to heads of state) and are therefore primarily responsible to parliament.
patriarchy
male domination and oppression of women
patrimonial state
a state in which power flows directly from the leader and political elites take advantage of their connections to enrich themselves and their clients
perestroika
the attempted restructuring of the Soviet political system under Gorbachev in the late 1980s
pluralism
the theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government; the outcome of this competition is compromise and moderation
plurality
the number of votes cast for a candidate who receives more than any other but does not receive an absolute majority.
policy community
the community of officials, experts, and interest groups with a stake in a particular policy area whose regular interaction leads to a convergence of views that is reflected in policy-making
political culture
the aggregate attitudes of members of a society toward the institutions of rule and how they should operate
political obligation
the question of what, if anything, obliges individuals to obey the state; a central preoccupation of political theorists. Answers to this question range from the ancient notion that monarchs have a "divine right" to rule to the modern notion that democracy is the basis of authority
political party
a group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy
political system
the totality of institutions within a state and all the connections between them
polyarchy
a term coined by Robert Dahl to refer to a society where government outcomes are the product of the competition between groups. The rule of minorities, not majorities, is postulated as the normal condition of pluralist democracies
positive discrimination
the practice of discriminating in favour of certain disadvantaged groups on the grounds that they would remain disadvantaged unless affirmative action is taken in their favour
positive liberty
liberty that can be increased either by state action or by removing internal obstacles such as immorality or irrationality
positivism
the application of the scientific approach to the social world
postmodernism
a multifaceted theoretical approach that challenges the certainties and dualisms of modernism and promotes pluralism and difference
power
the ability to make others do something that they would not have chosen to do
power politics
a view of politics, predicated on the notion that "might is right" that generally takes morality and justice to be irrelevant to the conduct of international relations
presidentalism
the principle that the president of a republic is the head of the government
principal-agent relations
a term for the relationship between the person who gives instructions (usually a government administrator) and the person who implements them
procedural justice
the fairness of the process by which outcomes are reached, regardless of what the outcome actually is
proletariat
Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
proportional representation
an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote
protectionism
an economic strategy, usually associated with a national policy of trade restriction in the form of tariffs and quotas, that attempts to protect domestic industries businesses, and jobs from foreign competition
public space
the arena (real or virtual) in which any member of society is free to express views on any issue of interest to the public

sometimes associated with the German philosopher Habermas, who stressed its key importance for democracy and the difficulty of maintaining it under capitalism.
rational choice theory
A popular theory in political science to explain the actions of voters as well as politicians

it assumes that individuals act in their own best interest, carefully weighing the costs and benefits of possible alternatives
realism
a school of thought that explains international relations in terms of power
rechtsstaat
literally, a law-based state, as distinct from a state where the executive is free to change policies as it sees fit
regionalization
a process in which a number of states are given geographical area come together for mutual benefit, often regional association (ex. the EU)
representative democracy
a system in which the people choose others to represent their interests instead of making decisions themselves
rule of law
the principle that everyone in a state, including the executive, is subject to the same impersonal laws
secularism
a doctrine that rejects religion and religious considerations.
security dilemma
a dilemma that arises when efforts that states make to defend themselves cause other states to feel less secure

this dilemma can lead to arms races and war due to fear of being attacked.
self-determination
the principle (embodying elements of both democracy and nationalism) that "peoples" (nations) have the right to determine their own political future
social Darwinism
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
social democracy
originally, a movement for a peaceful, non-revolutionary transition from capitalism to socialism; after the Russian Revolution in 1917 it came to be associated with liberal democracies that adopted re-distributive policies and created a welfare state
social justice
the principle that goods ought to be distributed according to need, merit, or the principle of equality
social movement
broad-based demand for government action on some problem or issue, such as civil rights for blacks, equal rights for women, or environmental protection
solidarism
a branch of thought in English School IR theory that promotes solidarity among humans and argues that the obligation to protect human rights can override the right of states to non-intervention in domestic politics
sovereign
the principle of self-government; to say the state is sovereign is to claim that is has a monopoly of force over the people and institutions in a given territorial area
state
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
statecraft
the skillful management of state affairs; statesmanship.
state of nature
hypothetical condition assumed to exist in the absence of government where human beings live in "complete" freedom and general equality
structural adjustment
development strategy that stresses integration into global markets, privatization, and so on. Supported by the World Bank, IMF, and other major northern financial institutions
structuration
the two-way process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are reshaped by society
sustainable development
the (contested) notion that economic growth is not incompatible with environmental protection and therefore can be sustained indefinitely
totalitariansim
a form of government where a party or individual controls all aspects of citizens' lives
track-two diplomacy
unofficial overtures by private individuals or groups to try and resolve an ongoing international crisis or civil war
unicameralism
a form of government in which the parliament consists of just one chamber
utilitarianism
idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people
utopia
an ideal society
welfare state
a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.